Italian dating

To meet the most intriguing Italian singles, try one of these 7 best Italian dating sites and apps: Meetic.it. Owned by the same group that runs online dating giant Match.com, Meetic.it is a must if you’re looking for your Italian soulmate. Best Italian Dating Sites. Italy has a good solid online dating scene that makes it easy to find an interesting girl. Now, if you are young you might just try Tinder. It is huge and has a lot of members in Italy. Badoo is another dating app that has a slew of Italian members. But for an older foreign man, those might not be the best choices. Dating an italian man While italian men are recognized worldwide as the most passionate and handsome, it might be tricky to get on with them if you are unaware of their peculiarities. If your desire to get to know italian culture is still here, we are happy to present you facts you should know before dating an italian man. At Italian American Dating, there are a host of lovely Italian singles waiting to for someone like you to sweep them of their feet. When it comes to romance and intimacy, no one does it better than the Italians, so if you're a looking to find someone who can be there by your side and make you feel like you're the only person in the world, you should join Italian American Dating immediately. Dating Italian singles. Italy is considered to be one of the most beautiful countries in the world. A lot of people say that Italy looks like heaven: its hot climate, sea and great variety of delicious food makes it a wonderful place for tourism. If Italy attracts you, if the lifestyle and sociability of Italians are just perfect for you, then ... Italian Dating & Chat for Italian Singles. Welcome to one of the fastest growing Italian singles sites on the web. Italiano Singles is one of the best Italian dating sites that helps Italian singles like yourself meet your Italian soul mate. Italian personals features include Italian chat, photo galleries, informative profiles and much more.We encourage you to explore the site and browse ... LoveAwake.com is a 100% free Italian dating site where you can make friends or find true love online. Join our community and meet thousands of lonely hearts from various parts of Italy. You can search the Italian personal ads in several different ways: you can browse them based upon location and age; you can do an advanced search with very ... Italian Dating is part of the dating network, which includes many other general and italian dating sites. As a member of Italian Dating, your profile will automatically be shown on related italian dating sites or to related users in the network at no additional charge. For more information on how this works, click here.

A place to learn ancient cookery

2017.04.12 01:07 critfist A place to learn ancient cookery

Welcome to /ArchaicCooking. This is a subreddit for those interested in learning to cook and discuss the food of the past. Subjects can range anywhere from ancient Roman cookery to the delights of 1700's London. Generally, nothing from the 1800's and above.
[link]


2020.09.18 19:54 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Resources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery (Books, Websites, Blogs & Etc.)

Cross-posted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
http://www.cmrs.ucla.edu/brian/index.htm
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library
https://www.youtube.com/useTheRitmanLibrary/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
http://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
http://www.brill.com/aries
Copyright www.molochsorcery.com All Rights Reserved
submitted by Brother_Moloch_969 to realwitchcraft [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 19:44 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Books, Websites, Blogs & More Resources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery

Crossposted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
http://www.cmrs.ucla.edu/brian/index.htm
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library
https://www.youtube.com/useTheRitmanLibrary/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
http://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
http://www.brill.com/aries
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2020.09.18 19:33 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Sources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery Books, Websites, Blogs and etc.

Cross-posted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
http://www.cmrs.ucla.edu/brian/index.htm
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library
https://www.youtube.com/useTheRitmanLibrary/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
http://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
http://www.brill.com/aries
Copyright www.molochsorcery.com All Rights Reserved
submitted by Brother_Moloch_969 to occult [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 19:31 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Pre-1800's Occult Books, Websites, Blogs & Etc.

Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
http://www.cmrs.ucla.edu/brian/index.htm
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library
https://www.youtube.com/useTheRitmanLibrary/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
http://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
http://www.brill.com/aries
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2020.09.18 19:21 IdolA18Sep1l Wed-ding Ni-ght S-ex Po-rn

Wed-ding Ni-ght S-ex Po-rn
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2020.09.18 13:40 TessaBissolli Deconstructing the mythology episodes. Part 1: Kate's memories until early 1990 (First part of Requiem)

In this series, we will examine the mythology episodes, in light of what we can believe or not, what we find confirmation of, and what is demolished by applying a bit of critical thinking.
When we get to these episodes, it is extremely important to keep in mind the concept of point of view (POV). What does a character know, and when did they learn it. The easiest way to confuse the audience is to play with the POV, so they assume that just because they or another character know something, all the other characters would too.
We have had three kinds of mythology episodes: memories, hallucinations and tales.
The memories are Kate's in Requiem; Ilya's in Orion RS, forced by Skovic; and two kinds of memories remembered by Liz: the ones in 2.10, aided/forced by Dr. Orchard, and her unaided memories in 1.09, 1.17 and 2.22 of the fire, as well as 3.02 (burying a can with Katarina) and the more dubious one of 3.03 (Katarina writing in her diary).
Just as I did on the previous series, in this series I will try to analyze the apparent narrative of the mythology episodes to see where it falls apart and where is holds true. While I am trying to stay within one episode, I am also aiming for a timeline understanding and how they all work with each other, so there will be some jumping back and forth, and references to the previous series and other episodes, especially when they reference mythology.

Let us take Requiem, accepted as being Kate's memories, and thus confirmed. All this means is that Requiem the way she remembers things. Most of it can be taken as being real and true: things happened as Kate remembered, but with any memory, it can be faulty, as Red observed, memories are not tapes, played back each time.
For example, we have in Requiem two calls made by Katarina to Kate in the motel.
We do not know if this is how Katarina looked when she made the calls to Kate.
We can trust Kate was told those things, as that is HER memory of the events. But we cannot trust the images we are shown of Katarina. Where she was, what she looked like, etc., because Kate does not KNOW these things.
This is what Kate knows. She got calls from Katarina.
It might well be where Katarina was, but until we are shown the same images by someone who saw the scene being with Katarina at the time, it remains Kate's imagining what Katarina looked like, and where she was.
I accept all of Requiem's scenes as the way Kate remembers things, with the exceptions of those phone calls from Katarina.
A couple of items remain questionable, but we have had confirmation of most items in there: her going as a nanny, Katarina arriving back after a trip, three months later, the scene where Katarina kills the Soviet agent, and Kate cleans it up, finding Katarina in the woods, the unused scene with young Kirk when he says goodbye to Masha, and then the abduction. What she remembers after the fire, and culminating in the moments before 1.01 starts, in September of 2013.
The two items that jar were that in Kate's memories, Katarina calls Constantin "Alexander" twice. It was my friend u/jen5225 who realized what this might mean.
Because we know he did not take the name Alexander Kirk until after the fall of the USSR:
Alexander Kirk is the alias of an oligarch who made a fortune after the fall of the Soviet Union buying mining operations for pennies on the dollar.
It makes sense that Constantin found himself in a difficult situation after Katarina was deemed a traitor. The husband of a traitor would have got some nasty encounters with people looking for her: the cabal, the KGB and for a while, "the Americans" or the CIA. A change of name was just necessary. I am surprised he did not change his face too. Or maybe he did.
We know he began to have problems with the Kremlin in 2002.
This might have been because they realized who he was, for when Tom obtains his dossier from Russian intelligence, they know Alexander Kirk is Constantin Rostov, as they have a DNA paternity test showing him to be the father of likely Masha:
TOM: This, um, SVR report, when I talked to you earlier, I hadn't finished reading it.... It's about you. And your father.
So, likely, his problems derive from being found out as Constantin Rostov. At any rate, by 2016, when he enters the scene, having seen Liz on the run with Red, the Russians know who he really is, because of that paternity test.
The writer said using the name Alexander was a "continuity error", but was it? Was recording the lines again with the correct name too difficult? I have my doubts about it. Possible it was, but I am not convinced. too blatant, especially when earlier in the season he had already been called Constantin by Red.
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Then Red says:
People think memory - works like a video recorder. The mind records events and then, on cue, plays back an exact replica. In truth, memories are reconstructed more like putting together an ever-changing jigsaw puzzle than replaying a video.
It is possible that Kate remembers Katarina saying Alexander, because that is how she had been hearing about him?:
You don't understand, Kate. I know where they are, and so does Alexander Kirk.
or maybe as u/jen5225 suggests, she had been in contact with him.
So, not everything will be as it seems, as Kate was told half the story, as we will see. but those are her recollection of the events.
Kathryn Nemec was hired as a nanny, with a curriculum vitae that was a fake, for we know from Aram's researching her, she did not go to Northwestern for medicine, or had a Masters in Child Development, at least not under that name. She did not work abroad for diplomatic families, which leave traces when vetted for security, particularly during the Cold War.
Kathryn Nemec. Your references are outstanding. Fluent in Italian, French, German, and Russian. Most of your charges appear to have been in various diplomatic corps. ...You attended medical school at Northwestern, yet you decided not to continue. ... thus, a Master's degree in Child Development.
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The facts, as digged up by Aram, are that she worked for an exclusive domestic agency and lived at a few addresses in the Midwest in her 30s. There is even no trace of her working in Canada for the Rostovs.
she [Nemec] disappeared in 1991, just dropped off the grid. Lived at a few addresses in the Midwest in her 30s. Worked at an exclusive domestic staffing agency, but then one day she's just gone. - And there is no more record.
This means that whoever hired her, in books, she was working somewhere in the Midwest. Her sister is living in Chicago in 1991, and then in Wisconsin. Kate's phone exchange is in Chicago, and her fake license has her being born in Chicago.
3 months after hiring Kate, Katarina arrives back from a trip
We see Kate intervene in a fight Katarina is having with a Russian man, sliding a knife to Katarina, which allows Katarina to kill the man.
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Kate then suggest she would clean up the scene and Katarina would take a shower. In this scene, Katarina is not really seen as being that good at hand to hand combat, even if she is not shy violet.
Kate tells Katarina she knows she is KGB, which makes no sense, as the man killed was KGB. Agents generally kill agents from the other side, which leads me to believe that Kate already knew Katarina was supposed to be KGB and was letting her know it was fine with her. She demonstrates her knowledge of crime scene cleaning and cadaver disposal.
So, whoever sent her to Katarina, it seems Katarina knew or suspected who it was, and accepted a strange nanny with a love for cadavers and what she realized was a fake CV (when she asked how many children had she raised), because who was sending her or who she suspected was.
I cannot imagine a mother taking a nanny that loves cadavers and babies, and who had lied in her CV (make the tally yourself: a pre-medical degree (4/5 years), a few years of medical school (less than 4 ), a Masters degree (1.5 to 2), and then raising at least two sets of siblings for five or six years each set. 19 years for a bare minimum.)
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Katarina asking Kate out of the blue, when she could not prepare, how many children had she raised, was a clue to me Katarina knew this whole CV was a bunch of lies, yet, she still hires and trusts Kate.
In Requiem we see a fake ID with a date of birth of 1953. This tallies, more or less with her being 6/9 in 1962 in the scene of her mother funeral, and puts her turning 30 in 1983/85. While she is supposedly hired by Katarina circa 1987, give or take a year, when Liz is about a year old.
Kate fake ID.
Kate believe it was Red who had hired her.
to keep Elizabeth safe, just like you asked me to all those years ago, when you first put her in my arms as a baby girl.
Red does not correct her that he only hired her in 1997, when Liz was being raised by Sam. So, either Red is letting her believe something which is not true, or Red is accepting that he somehow had a hand in her becoming Liz's nanny. But that knowledge came AFTER he had hired her, because she told Red in 1997:
KATE: Work for you? I don't know you.
We have a known case of Red hiring someone to look over Liz anonymously: an operative from the Major, Tom Keen.
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THE MAJOR TO TOM: The assignment's deep cover. No timeline, no price tag. This may seem like a cake walk, but it's the kind of assignment that makes me nervous. Our contractor has deep pockets. Demands the best, insists on anonymity.
the two hirings of Kathryn Nemec AKA Kate Kaplan
Kate believed that she had been working for Red for 30 years (1986/87), about the time she went to work for Katarina as a nanny with a fake curriculum vitae and a knowledge of cleaning a crime scene.
KATE TO AGENT GALE: Raymond thinks he out maneuvered me today, but he underestimated my commitment. I've been his cleaner, keeper, and confessor for 30 years.
Uncontested by Red, Kate said that Red had been involved in putting Liz in her care as a baby (Which might be literal or figurative, as in hiring her like he did Tom Keen, anonymously, to keep an eye on Liz).
But what she tells Red undisputed is that he hired twenty years prior. A scene we saw in Requiem, after Annie had been killed, and Kate is working for bail bondsman Little Nikos, circa 1996/97, when he sends Sam to talk to Kate, and then Kate and Red meet.
KATE: Work for you? I don't know you.
RED: I'm not as unknown as you might like to believe, Ms. Nemec.
Red sends Sam to fetch Kate, to offer her a job as his cleaner circa 1997
and then this:
When you hired me, you told me to choose Elizabeth over you. And so I tried to help her disappear to a safe place with her newborn daughter. And for that, you put me down like a mad dog. For the last two decades of my life, you had me convinced I was helping keep Elizabeth safe.
This is an interesting fact, and has become a clue for some fan theories in which Red is Katarina, after a surgery that left her an identical copy, down to voice and height to RR.
Yet, consider:
MEANS I can venture that Red hired Kate anonymously when Liz was a baby, to keep an eye on her, and eventually told Kate it had been him, and since she was cleaning bodies for Katarina, sent by Red, she was technically being a cleaner for him since then.
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Kate then comes across Katarina and a man in a car, when Liz is about three years old, which places this scene in 1989. Because if Liz was born in 1985, but she was still four years old at the time of the fire, in December of 1990, then Liz was born in late December 1985.
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Kate advices Katarina to break up with this man, a man she calls The American. And considering that she tells Liz that Katarina did not walk away from Raymond until it was too late and Raymond had taken Liz, believing her to be his, this man in the car must be Raymond Reddington. The man she will later blame for setting a set of events in motion which took what she loved from her, in that Katarina killed herself, at least in her view.
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From here, we jump to Liz's earliest memories of her mother, which come in 4.02 and 4.03, as she has been to the Summer palace and after she stole Katarina's diary from an FBI office.
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2020.09.18 13:09 PiggySVW 14 currently active Munich-born footballers have received a call up to a national team. None of those was from Germany. Here are their stories.

While searching some stuff on Transfermarkt, I discovered that there are 14 currently active football players who were born in Munich and have been called up for at least one senior national team fixture. Funnily, not a single one of those 14 players was called up to the German Nationalmannschaft. I decided to take a closer look at their respective careers. There are some more obvious paths like Germans of Turkish descent who went on to play in and for Turkey but also some pretty obscure careers. I begin with the most capped player and work my way down the list to the players who only got a call up without getting any game time. I sincerely hope you enjoy this read, it was pretty fun to write down!

Fabian Johnson

Age: 32
Position: Left Winger
Current team: -
National team: USA (57 matches, 2 goals)
The most-capped player in this list is American international Fabian Johnson. He was born in 1987 in München-Giesing and started his footballing career playing for Sportfreunde München before making the switch to 1860 where he spent 13 years. In 2009, he began his career in the 1. Bundesliga with Wolfsburg. Until today he made over 200 appearances in Germany's top flight for the Wolves, Hoffenheim and Gladbach. Currently he's without a club as Borussia didn't want to extend his contract.
The defensive-minded winger played for all the DFB youth teams and even won the under-21 Euros in 2009 alongside players like Mesut Özil, Mats Hummels or Manuel Neuer. However, Johnson - son of a German mother and an American father - stated that he "always felt quite American", so it's no wonder that he accepted the invitation when USMNT coach Jürgen Klinsmann called him up to the US squad in 2011. Since then he participated in the World Cup 2014, the Copa América 2016 and several Gold Cups. His last international game to date was in September 2017.

Manuel Ott

Age: 28
Position: Central Midfielder
Current team: United City F.C.
National team: Philippines (51 matches, 4 goals)
"Manny" Ott also represented 1860 München during his youth career before eventually ending up at FC Ingolstadt's academy in 2009. He spent five year's in the Audi city before going to his mother's home country to play for Ceres-La Salle FC, who are now called United City F.C. He won several titles with the Filipino powerhouse and in fact returned to them in February 2020 after a wasted year in Thailand where he only managed to play one single game for Ratchaburi Mitr Phol F.C. due to a tibia fracture.
Ott played his first senior game for the Philippines on 16 January 2010 at only 17 years of age. A scout had been sent out to find players in Europe who are eligible for the Filipino team. The midfielder's first goal followed in a 3-0 win over Cambodia in 2014.

Mike Ott

Age: 25
Position: Attacking Midfielder
Current team: United City F.C.
National team: Philippines (21 matches, 3 goals)
Another one? Yes! Mike Ott followed his big brother's footsteps and also graduated from 1860's youth system before joining Nürnberg in 2014. He was unable to impress in the first team and instead played for Nürnberg's under-23 team in the fourth tier. After three seasons, he decided to start on an adventure in Asia instead, so he made the switch to Angthong F.C. in Thai League 2. He had a decent stint in Thailand which made his brother's club Ceres offer him a contract in 2018. The new owners changed the team's name but re-signed both brothers in this summer. What are the Otts?
Mike was part of the Filipino national team for the first time in 2013 but didn't get to enter the pitch. His debut actually only came in October 2016 against Bahrain and he even scored the goal in his team's 1:3 loss.

Mehmet Ekici

Age: 30
Position: Attacking Midfielder
Current team: -
National team: Turkey (12 matches, 0 goals)
"Memo" Ekici began playing football for former Bundesliga outfit SpVgg Unterhaching, but he quickly became a member of FC Bayern's youth system. He made it onto Bayern's bench in 2009/10 but never played a minute for Bayern's senior squad. For the following season he was loaned out to fellow Bundesliga team Nürnberg where the young talent impressed alongside fellow German Turk Ilkay Gündogan. While the latter was bought by Borussia Dortmund, Ekici went to Werder Bremen. He never really broke through in the Hanseatic city and was eventually sold to Trabzonspor in 2014. In his first season he scored 9 goals and assisted another 11, but he couldn't replicate those numbers afterwards. In early 2017 he was suspended by Trabzonspor because he insisted on a transfer to Fenerbahce instead of Besiktas which Trabzonspor preferred. When his contract ran out after the season he finally joined Fener and played there until last season, albeit with mediocre success.
Ekici played for the German youth national teams before the Turkish FA convinced him to play for them after his strong start to the 2010/11 season. He debuted against the Netherlands in November 2010 but never managed to play a major part in the Crescent-Stars' team. His last appearance to date was in 2015.

Ceyhun Gülselam

Age: 32
Position: Defensive Midfielder
Current team: Alanyaspor
National team: Turkey (6 matches, 0 goals)
Gülselam spent the 1994/95 season at mighty Gartenstadt Trudering before spending 8 years in FC Bayern's junior teams. In 2006 he went to Unterhaching where he experienced his first games in 2. Bundesliga. They were relegated, but Gülselam still stayed for another season. He seems to have impressed some Turkish scouts as Trabzonspor decided to pick him up in 2008. Since then he has been playing for several teams in the Süper Lig with his current employer being Alanyaspor. Between 2014 and 2016 he spent two seasons in the Bundesliga at Hannover 96, he scored his only Bundesliga goal in a match against Leverkusen in November 2014.
Gülselam made his debut for the Turkish national team in March 2008, when coach Fatih Terim called him up for a friendly against Belarus. His last match took place nearly 11 years ago, he assisted a goal and was sent off shortly afterwards against Armenia.

Tarik Camdal

Age: 29
Position: Right Back
Current team: Adana Demirspor
National team: Turkey (6 matches, 1 goal)
Camdal spent most of his footballing youth in Ingolstadt, playing 8 years for Türkgücü Ingolstadt before going to MTV Ingolstadt at 13 years of age. When they played against 1860 Munich's youth team, the Lions' people in charge were so impressed that they offered Camdal a transfer right after the game. In 2009 he made his debut in the 2. Bundesliga and made several apperances in the senior team until 2011. For the season 2011/12 Süper Lig team Eskisehirspor decided to bring him to Turkey. He spent 3 seasons in Eskisehir before going to Galatasaray where he even got to play in the Champions League. He was loaned back to Eskisehir in 2016/17 but the loan didn't really help him with establishing himself at Gala. After several quarrels his contract was terminated in early 2019 and he went to Antalyaspor for the remainder of the season. Today he plays for Adana Demirspor in the second tier.
Camdal played for DFB's under-19 team but later decided to kick the ball for Turkey. His first of six call-ups to the national team was in November 2013 after a strong start of the season with Eskisehirspor. His last match followed about one year later. During his time in the national team he scored one goal in a friendly against Ireland.

Philipp Ospelt

Age: 27
Position: Left Midfielder
Current team: USV Eschen-Mauren
National team: Liechtenstein (5 matches, 0 goals)
Ospelt is yet another graduate of FC Bayern's youth where he played up to the under-19s. In 2010 he went to play for FC Buchs and later Young Fellows Juventus in Switzerland's lower leagues. In January 2012 he transferred to USV Eschen-Mauren, a team from Liechtenstein that - like all the outfits from the tiny country - play in the Swiss league system. Liechtenstein's only competition is the Liechtenstein Cup, which Ospelt and his colleagues went on to win in 2012. In 2013 he was picked up by Liechtenstein's best team FC Vaduz where he played until 2018 - with the exception of a short stint at WSG Wattens in Austria in 2016. After taking a short break, Ospelt returned to football in early 2019. He now plays for Eschen-Mauren again, currently in the fourth tier of Swiss football.
Ospelt's record for the national team is very weird. His first match was in 2012 against Lithuania, his second and third followed in 2016 and the fourth in 2017. His last appearance to date was last week, when Liechtenstein won 2:0 against powerhouse San Marino. However, Ospelt never started a match, in fact his longest appearance was three minutes long. If you add up all his minutes since he was first called up 8 years ago, you get a whopping NINE minutes of time on the pitch.

Nicola Sansone

Age: 29
Position: Left Winger
Current team: FC Bologna
National team: Italy (3 matches, 0 goals)
Nicola Sansone's career began in Eastern Munich, at SV Neuperlach. He then played for FC Bayern from 2002 until 2011. He made his debut for Bayern's under-23 team in February 2010 when he came on as a substitute for none other than David Alaba. In October 2010 he got to spend 90 minutes on the bench of the Bundesliga squad in a match against Freiburg. From 2011 on he was a Parma player, although he spent his first season on loan at Crotone. He had a decent spell both there and later in Parma which made Sassuolo buy him in early 2014. After two and a half very successful seasons Sansone was picked up by Villareal who paid 13 million € for the German Italian attacker. He had two pretty good seasons in La Liga, however things didn't work any more in 2018/19 which made Bologna loan Sansone during the winter transfer window. He is a key player in their squad ever since as the team from Emilia-Romagna decided to make the deal permanent in the following summer.
Sansone never really considered to play for Germany as he played for the Italian junior teams from under-17s up until the under-21s. Thanks to an impressive time at Sassuolo, coach Antonio Conte called Sansone up to the senior team in 2015, when he made his debut as a subsitute against Portugal. He was able to add two more matches to his tally in 2016, the last one being against his country of birth - Germany.

Lucas Hufnagel

Age: 26
Position: Central Midfielder
Current team: SpVgg Unterhaching
National team: Georgia (2 matches, 0 goals)
Hufnagel's first team was TSV Milbertshofen in the north of Munich. In 2001 he was picked up by FC Bayern where he spent ten years of his early footballing career. In 2011 he went to FC Ingolstadt only to transfer to SpVgg Unterhaching one year later. He slowly established himself as a key player in Unterhaching's senior team which made SC Freiburg sign him for their 2015/16 2. Bundesliga campaign. He got quite a bit of game time, but that changed after Freiburg's promotion in 2016. Hufnagel was demoted to the second team and consequently loaned out to Nürnberg in January 2017. However he failed to leave a real mark there as well and finally returned to Unterhaching in 2018 to play in the 3. Liga. He is a staple in their squad, having played well over 2000 minutes in both of the last two league seasons.
Hufnagel never had a real chance to become a German international however he was eligible for Georgia as well because of his Georgian mother. He made his debut in 2015 against Estonia and played another 4 minutes against Serbia in 2017. Before his senior debut he already played some games for the country's junior teams.

Kingsley Ehizibue

Age: 25
Position: Right Back
Current team: 1. FC Köln
National team: Nigeria (0 matches, 0 goals)
Ehizibue was born in Munich to Nigerian parents. When he was two years old, the family moved to Zwolle in the Netherlands. He played for local club CSV '28 before joining PEC Zwolle's youth system from which he later graduated. He made his professional debut in October 2014 in a cup game and played his first Eredivisie game two months later against Willem II. Since 2016 he was a permanent member of the first team and managed to become a key player. In 2019, after their promotion to the Bundesliga, 1. FC Köln picked him up and gave him a chance to shine in the country of his birth. He instantly became Cologne's starting right-back and played in 31 out of 34 possible league games.
Ehizibue played one match for the Dutch under-21s in 2016, which remains his only international experience to date. However, Nigeria's coach Gernot Rohr called him up to the Super Eagles' AFCON qualifier against Sierra Leone back in March. But due to the pandemic the fixture is yet to be played.

Koray Altintay

Age: 28
Position: Right Back
Current team: Fatih Karagümrük
National team: Turkey (0 matches, 0 goals)
Altintay's career began at SC Fürstenfeldbruck, where he stayed until he was 19 years old. After one squeezed in year at FC Bayern under-23s, 2. Bundesliga team Jahn Regensburg picked him up in 2012. He left the Jahn again in 2013 in order to play for Caykur Rizespor in the Süper Lig. He was a regular starter for them and managed to impress the scouts of Osmanlispor who signed him in 2016. He played some matches for the Ankara-based outfit, including one Europa League group fixture, but ultimately failed to establish himself. As a consequence he returned to Rizespor in early 2018 to help them to get back into the Süper Lig after their recent relegation. They indeed clinched promotion but Altintay failed to prove himself again in the following 2018/19 campaign. In September 2019 he joined Fatih Karagümrük and was an important part of their successful 1. Lig campaign. Altintay scored a goal in the promotion play-off semi-finals, Karagümrük went on to win the final in a thrilling penalty shoot-out and get back into Süper Lig after 36 years of absence.
After a strong start in 2013 with Caykur Rizespor, Fatih Terim let him join the Turkish national team for two friendlies against Northern Ireland and Belarus in November. However, he didn't get any time on the pitch and was never nominated again.

Alejandro Duarte

Age: 26
Position: Goalkeeper
Current team: FC Juárez
National team: Peru (0 matches, 0 goals)
There's not much information about Alejandro Duarte's youth on the internet. With his full name being Alejandro Christoph Duarte Preuss, I reckon that he probably has a German mother. However, he spent his first years as a goalkeeper at the FRAMA football academy in Lima before joining Esther Grande de Bentin, a semi-professional club from the suburbs of the Peruvian capital. In 2010, he returned to Germany to play for Bayer Leverkusen's under 17 team. He left the Werkself again in 2011 and continued to play for Juan Aurich's junior team in Peru before breaking into their senior squad. He made his first league debut in 2013 in a 1:1 draw against Inti Gas. He went on to join Club Cienciano in 2015 and later Deportivo Municipal in 2016 but didn't get much game time at either club. This changed when Duarte was signed by USM Porres in 2017. Duarte finally got to play more games between the sticks which secured him move to Mexico in 2018 when Lobos BUAP decided to sign him. After an unsuccessful stint at the team from Puebla, the keeper joined FC Juárez but was immediately loaned out to Club Atlético Zacapetec in the second league. He was their main goalkeeper, however the club was dissolved and he recently returned to Juárez.
Duarte was called up for Peru's friendlies against Croatia and Iceland in March 2018. He wasn't granted any game time however. Thus, his three matches for Peru's under-19s remain his only international appearances.

Jonathan Klinsmann

Age: 23
Position: Goalkeeper
Current team: LA Galaxy
National team: USA (0 matches, 0 goals)
Klinsmann junior was born during his father Jürgen's time at FC Bayern. His mother is an American model. Jonathan shortly lived in Genoa when Jürgen played for Sampdoria before the family moved to California after Jürgen's career. Jonathan started his career as a striker for FC Blades 96 and Irving Lasers. In 2008 he followed his father - who accepted a job as FC Bayern head coach - back to Germany and was retrained into a goalkeeper by FC Bayern's academy. After his return to California, Klinsmann played for Pateadores and Strikers FC in the US Soccer Development Academy. He also represented his high school between 2011 and 2014 and later played for the California Golden Bears, Berkeley university's college team. During the summer of 2017, Klinsmann had several trials at European teams like VfB Stuttgart, West Ham and Everton. After another trial at Hertha BSC, the capital city club signed the American. He played one match for Hertha's senior team - a Europa League fixture against Östersunds FK - and he even saved a penalty. He joined St. Gallen in 2019 where he became the goalkeeper for the Swiss Cup matches. However, he got red carded in the second round and the team got knocked out by FC Winterthur. In August 2020 Klinsmann joined the LA Galaxy.
Klinsmann played for various US youth teams before being called up to the senior USMNT in November 2018. He was an injury replacement for Zack Steffen for the team's friendlies against England and Italy but ultimately stayed on the bench.

Anes Osmanoski

Age: 20
Position: Central Midfielder
Current team: Bregalnica Stip
National team: North Macedonia (0 matches, 0 goals)
Osmanoski played for 1860 München until he was 13 years old. He then transferred to SpVgg Unterhaching's youth teams and stayed at the club until 2019 when he decided to move to his parents' home country North Macedonia. He now plays for Bregalnica Stip in the Eastern group of the Macedonian second division. They finished the season in second place, barely missing out on promotion. To be honest, I can't tell you much more about his career as he's still very young and there's not that much information on the second tier of Macedonian football.
Osmanoski played for several junior national teams of his country and is in fact a current member of the under-20 team. However, he was called up for a friendly of the senior national team in 2017 when he was just 17 years old. Macedonia - back then still without the "North" - won 2:0 against Norway but little Osmanoski did not get any minutes on the pitch with the big guys.
submitted by PiggySVW to soccer [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 11:39 sogekiokamidev Number and title of exams for Msc Computer Science/Cyber Security ESOP Admission at ETH

Hello, I'm a third-year bachelor CS student at an Italian University (UNIGE) with the equivalent of a 4.0 GPA currently looking to enroll in the CS/Cyber Security master program at ETH for Autumn 2021, and I want to apply for the Excellence Scholarship & Opportunity Programme.
I currently haven't passed all the exams for the first and second year (2 total; in Italy, you can keep re-doing exams up until the date before graduation), as I intended to do so during this year's first semester, which is after the end of the first application period.
After reading the Admission Prerequisites, I have 3 questions:
1) Would having exams from previous years yet to complete be a problem for my ESOP/overall admittance at ETH? (I can ask my professors to give me early access and have them quicker, if necessary)
2) How does ETH measure the content, scope, quality and skill level of the degree? As in, do I have to provide the English translation of the names of both the exams and their content, considering that our titles are very different from the ones used in the ETH Admission list (e.g. Discrete Mathematics being called "Algebra and Logic for CS")?
3) I'm currently in the process of choosing a subset of exams for my third year, and I can either focus more on theoretical computer science (with an Fundamentals of a Quantum Computing, Intro to Data Science and Automata Theory and Computability) or a more hands-on approach (Advanced Programming Techniques, IoT Applications and ERP systems). Which one is considered to be more desirable for ETH applicants?
Thanks in advance.
submitted by sogekiokamidev to ethz [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 09:15 dipshit__ 20 [M4F] [Philadelphia, PA] White & Nerdy Artist Hoping To Lose Virginity Before He Turns 21

Hey, I'm a chemistry student in Philly and I'm hoping to finally lose my v-card! I'm 6'0" and about 195lbs. I wear glasses, have semi-curly brown hair, brown eyes, and a short beard. I'm Italian, so white but with olive skin. I'm decently built with broad shoulders and a bit of chub on the muscle I've built up.
I'm interested in art, creative writing, gaming, swimming, and cooking. Most of the creative content I produce is adult-oriented, but I draw and write all sorts of things, mainly sci-fi and fantasy though. My favorite games are Overwatch, Hollow Knight, Slay The Spire, and Darkest Dungeon. I smoke weed occasionally, so we can spark up if you'd like.
My best guess for why I haven't lost my virginity yet is social awkwardness. I tend to be anxious about social situations, especially with the idea of asking people out and such. I've tried online dating but I haven't had much luck there either.
Ideally, I'd lose my virginity to a patient woman around my age. I'm not picky about appearance really (though I have a bit of a type if you're curious), I'm not interested in obese women though.
I can host! Shoot me a message if you're at all interested.
submitted by dipshit__ to VirginityExchange [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 08:00 BarneyBuckley Interesting Facts About King Kong 1975

Interesting Facts About King Kong 1975

King Kong and the Snake
As we all know the remake of the original 1933 version of King Kong would soon come out in 1976 and it would run into a lot of problems and here is a story based on those problems. First I like to add this movie is absolutely classic in nature and it was very well done however like most movies they do run into problems.
We would talk about the legal battle that was created before this film came out and the problems I came in one they built a 40 foot robot ape.
Our according to the producer of this film Dino De Laurentiis he had told Time magazine at one time roughly around 1976 that “No One Cry When Jaws Died” however in another quote he mentions “but When the Monkey Dies, People Are Gonna Cry” is a little-known fact that there are many many fans that love King Kong.
With the hard-core King Kong fans they can be very cynical when you take a classic King Kong 1933 and try to modernize it, and they can be a little hesitant. However the same rule applies to most fan bases.
The new King Kong movie would come out a 1976 would be a multimillion dollar production and he would take a different approach as he was not a big fan of stop motion animation that was done by Willis O’Brien as they had used in the original King Kong 1933.
He would go as far as to create a full-sized mechanical version of this King Kong and this thing was absolutely massive. The end result would end up being one of the most expensive and difficult productions for this decade as it was raught with cost overruns and technical problems.
There was also a legal battle with a rival studio door this production. Dino De Laurentiis recently passed away in 2010 is an avid lover of King Kong. Now we’ll talk about the legal battle that was created during this movie.
The Legal Battle of King Kong 1976
There was in fact a legal battle between two of the biggest Hollywood studios that was created just by the ideal of remaking King Kong at the very same time. The first story goes Michael Eisner who is now the future boss for Disney was a vice president at ABC said he had seen the original classic on television back in December 1974 and idly floated the idea of actually remaking King Kong to longtime friend Sid Sheinberg love the time was the president for MCA/Universal studios.
This was according to New York magazine that actually publish this article back in 1976. It was then that Sheinburg would pitch the ideal to his friend Barry Diller will also happen to be the president of Paramount Studios. Unaware of the fact that there was another company in the process of getting their version of King Kong off the ground Sheinberg and Diller will begin to put the wheels in motion for a King Kong remake in their respective studio. Diller then hired Dino De Laurentiis to revive the great a four Paramount Studios. Meanwhile Sheinberg was also doing the same as he did hire TV producer Hunt Stromberg Jr. This at any rate was what was told and the story was put forward by Michael Eisner. Dino De Laurentiis had always insisted that he would come up with an idea of remaking King Kong himself.
Both Universal Studios and Paramount Studios made an attempt to gain the rights to King Kong from its present owner RKO Pictures Inc. Now what happened after that became the subject of a real expensive and bitter legal battle.
On April 15, 1975 Daniel O’Shea a semi-retired attorney for RKO Pictures Inc. had arranged a meeting with a legal representation for Universal Studios and Dino De Laurentiis as well as Paramount Studios. Both of these companies want to make an offer to attain the copyrights to King Kong however neither party knew that a rival studio was in negotiation.
Dino De Laurentiis offer $200,000 +3% of the remake’s gross profits in return for the rights of King Kong. A song that was much higher than the reported $150,000 that RKO pictures Inc. was actually looking for. The meeting in itself didn’t go well and an agreement was eventually made and that it did appear that Paramount Studios has secured the rights to one of the most famous monsters in history.
Oh no, but wait Universal Studios attorney Arnold Shane had insisted that he had an equally positive meeting with O’Shea on the very same day in April. Even though there were no papers formally signed in seeing that Shane claimed that O’Shea had verbally accepted Universal Studios offer of $200,000 +5% of the remake net profits for the King Kong copyrights. Shane had left the meeting convinced that the copyrights for King Kong would now belonged to Universal Studios.
You would now be early May 1975 that soon after Paramount Studios has signed a legal documentation with RKO Pictures Inc. that then this is when I first heard about Universal Studios plan to remake its own King Kong. By this point, Paramount Studios had already set the release date for’s remake on December 1976-just in time for Christmas.
Universal Studios with screenwriter Bo Goldman wrote the script for One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest and the director Joseph Sargent directed films like The Taking of Pelham, one, two, three fame was in fact already hired to do this project that they would tentatively call it “The Legend of King Kong”.
Needless to say neither studio was pleased when they soon discover the existence of another King Kong project. It is then that the lawyers were scrambled and obviously Universal Studios fired first. According to the book that was written by Ray Morton and it was called “King Kong: The History of a Movie Icon” he said that Universal Studios was sought out for $25 million in damages from both Dino De Laurentiis and RKO Pictures Inc. Universal Studios also insisted that they had obtained a verbal agreement with RKO Pictures Inc. and to add further insult the studio also said in a publication that the story for King Kong in the 1930s novelization meant that the material was now in the public domain if that makes any sense.
Dino De Laurentiis was also bitter about what had happened with Universal Studios that he himself counter-sued for $90 million in damages for “Copyright Infringement” and he also decided that, far from putting King Kong on hold until the legal battle was over, he would actually rush this film into production.
It would be roughly later in 1975 that Dino De Laurentiis had adverts published with the federal and headline, “There Still Is Only One King Kong.” There was another adverts and it said “The Most Exciting Original Motion Picture Event of All Time.”
The Further Damage of King Kong 1976
It had become perfectly clear that Dino De Laurentiis was not going to back down in the fight over the King Kong copyrights. Even though the legal calls were mounting, Universal Studios was left with a very difficult decision to make all whether or not to spend a further $10 million on a rival movie and eventually face a potential loss at the box office.
There were attempts to forge a deal between the two studios in January 1976. It is said that they would collaborate over one King Kong movie is simply share the profits between this movie. However that would soon fall far as Dino De Laurentiis refused Universal Studios terms as it seems that Universal Studios wanted to use their script and retain control of the merchandising rights.
The battle between Universal Studios and Paramount Studios did finally end on January 28 when it was announced that Dino De Laurentiis had agreed to pay a certain percentage off his King Kong 1976 profits to Universal Studios and they would eventually cancel their project called “The Legend of King Kong.”
The main reason they did this was an effort to save face and Universal Studios nevertheless maintained that it would make its own King Kong movie at an unspecified future time. That would soon come in 2005 one Universal Pictures released their version of King Kong that was directed by Peter Jackson. The company that actually created this film is called Wingnut Productions. This movie they did a fantastic job in my opinion it was better than the 1976 version and a lot of aspects now I’m not taken away from the 1976 version of the by Paramount Pictures, but CGI wise obviously is much more in the story is more grounded to the original. I do like them both I just prefer Peter Jackson version as it is my favorite.
Getting back on track now that Universal Studios is out of the picture can concentrate and make the best possible film based on King Kong. It also might have appeared as though that Dino De Laurentiis worse problems were behind him. However rushing the field for King Kong had taken its toll on the production; the movie in itself took a risk burning through millions of dollars because of this legal battle.
King Kong was already an ambitious film by the 1970s standards. Dino De Laurentiis had earmarked an estimate of $16 million for the film. As part of this particular budget Dino De Laurentiis had his mind set on building something the world had never seen before and that would be a full-scale, 44 high animatronic King Kong.
The actual cost of this gigantic ape machine would come in at $1.7 million. It was during a hasty preproduction that Dino De Laurentiis had assembled a casting crew that was very eclectic in nature. One being Jessica Lange was absolutely smoking hot. According to the film she is a former model with no prior acting experience as she was brought on as Dwan King Kong’s hapless love interest.
There was an updated version of the story that was written by Lorenzo Semple Jr. he also wrote stories such as Three Days of the Condor. We all know what the synopsis is based on the film and if you haven’t seen it yet you might want to check it out is pretty decent in its own way with something different concepts as they changed the location of the building to the twin towers instead of the traditional Empire State building scene.
The director of this film John Guillermin a seasonal British director who just got done finishing the biggest film in 1974 when a total cost of $14 million and it is a disaster thriller and quite famous in my opinion and the movie is called “The Towering Inferno.” Now if this director can handle the colossal egos on the production it seems that Dino De Laurentiis felt that he could actually handle a 44 giant monster.
Creating the least there was a team of technicians and artists that was led by Carmel Rambaldi is a fantastic Italian effects designer and he would later work on the original 1979 film Alien as well as the ever popular ET the Extraterrestrial. Before actually doing King Kong Rambaldi’s assignment on King Kong was to create a, mechanical prop as tall as a three-story building. Unlike anything he has seen or done in his lifetime. You would then later compare that building this King Kong to “The United States Program” during the race to the moon.
While building this gigantic mechanical beast he also thereby separate mechanical hands with working figures that would be used to scoop up the lawn here beauty. As for the actual suit that was used in this film for King Kong Rambaldi would collaborate with Rick Baker to create this amazing suit. Rick Baker himself has experience of more than 25 years in makeup effects recently scored a major credit as an assistant to Dick Smith on the movie set The Exorcist.
Trade Papers have reported that the producers of King Kong were auctioning actors could actually play King Kong in the ape like suit and longshots. Eventually Rick Baker himself would take up this role because he said later “they couldn’t find anyone else stupid enough to wear the suit.”
Now there are certain accounts they do very as a do not know you came up with the idea to create a 44 tall robot that was literally covered in Argentinian horsehair. Some people have suggested that Rambaldi was the possible culprit that said he would build a King Kong that was actually capable of walking around on a full size set. Though there are other people seem to think that he was Dino De Laurentiis came up with the ideal and pass it along to screenwriter Lorenzo Semple Jr. these two guys possibly be the ones that came up with the ideal of the 44 robot King Kong.
Nevertheless, the attempt was made. Glen Robinson, who'd worked on the special mechanical effects on such films as Tora! Tora! Tora! and The Hindenburg, oversaw the construction of Kong and the amalgam of aluminium, latex, horse tails and hydraulics. All told, the mechanical Kong would cost around $1.7 million to build, with some putting the price as high as $2 million. The separate mechanical hands and the suit worn by Rick Baker added a further $400,000; a static, full-sized styrofoam Kong, featured in just one scene, cost another $300,000. The construction of two versions of sets for certain key sequences - full-size for close-ups, at a smaller scale for Baker's suit - added hundreds of thousands more.
And one given time or another it was reported that the costs would further run with two full-scale right hands that were accidentally constructed on the roster production. (That Is Crazy). However those 20s were refuted by Bruce Bahrenburg who wrote the book “the creation of Dino De Laurentiis King Kong” however one is backed up by the actor Charles Grodin. Mentioned in his autobiography and he wrote “in the rush to begin production, to huge right hands were made by mistake, and the picture had to be delayed because neither work…”
To further elaborate on the behind-the-scenes of King Kong 1976 the stunt actress Sunny Woods clambered into the hand for a trial run of the scene where it is seen that Dwan was being lifted into the air by King Kong. There was a team of four operators that work the jacks that control the hand, the fingers closed around Sunny Woods and picked her up off the ground. All seem to be going well at first approximately 10 feet off the ground, the hand suddenly snapped at the wrist, leaving Sunny Woods leaving her hanging in midair.
Sunny Woods she did manage to escape days and largely uninjured but if it was a less experienced Jessica Lange that was in the hands of sure the outcome would have been far worse. All of King Kong’s big hands and arms were controlled by several tenants are Italian technicians that frantically were pushing and pulling a lot of levers this way and that way according to Charles Grodin.
The fingers on this are so huge that they were literally bigger than Jessica Lange herself as one of the things managed to bang her directly in the head during the scene were King Kong is disrobing her.
The lecture was very temperamental the full-size King Kong was downright noncompliant. To try to envision a piece that was so sophisticated that it could literally walk move his arms and even wait’ll it scares it was however instead stiff and unconvincing. Because of this situation far more weight was put on Rick Baker and his ape like suit and because of the interchangeable masks and complex mechanics could bring at least a modicum of expressiveness to King Kong.
Now We Will Talk about Problems on the Set
in August 1976 with the actual release date looming just around the corner there was one climatic sequence within the film in which King Kong is shown off at a noisy stadium in New York City. It’s the pivotal moment where King Kong escapes and goes on a rampage, a tantrum which eventually concludes at the top of the World Trade Center.
It was in front of a crowd of 100 unpaid extras with cameras rolling, the mechanical Kong would greatly be unveiled. Oman the extras were the heads of Paramount Studios and they were watching in anticipation. However awkwardly, a huge covering was lifted away to reveal the giant King Kong and his eyes started to roll as well as his mouth began to open and close. The audience cheered graciously.
Suddenly we hear a voice crying out from the crowd: “Oh My God! He’s Leaking!”
Sure enough one of the hydraulic parties hidden inside this gigantic King Kong had ruptured, leaking fluid as it was pouring down King Kong’s leg. So had made a comment “He Just Got Excited Seeing the Girl!”
There was another sequence where King Kong actually escapes and Rick Baker was brought out again in his air-cold King Kong suit while a mechanical leg was useful for close-ups scenes. It is then that Charles Grodin had his all potentially dangerous encounter with King Kong’s hair and steal on the very last night of filling. In his final dramatic scene Charles Grodin is seen running from Kong, and he trips, and then screams as a huge hairy for this ends up on him or over top of him. However according to the director he came over and assured him that the leg would completely miss him by plenty.
The problem laws that the legs tendency to malfunction didn’t exactly fill Charles Grodin with confidence. It would be shortly after that that one of the assistants will come over to Charles Grodin and explain that they are having trouble getting the leg to move, let alone get to do things. It would be to hours gone by that the technicians continued to work frantically on the leg, their explanation was that time profanity you get here piercing through the night air.
Eventually the night gave way to the morning and the light was finally ready to move and Charles Roldan goes on record to say that his actions scene with the hairy foot came down and actually missed him but not by much. Despite the director’s assurance we got some pretty good photographs and fear and Charles Grodin according to what he had wrote in his autobiography.
(Hilariously, test audiences hated that Grodin's seedy oil baron made it through the movie in one-piece, so the scene was re-edited to make it look as though Kong really had squashed him.)
To further elaborate on the full-size King Kong’s appearance in the movie it didn’t amount to a total of 15 seconds.
Glenn Robinson who actually built the 40 foot beast admitted it was only seen for “three or four long shots in the stadium sequence.”
Rick Baker had said that during the movie’s closing credits it does state that “Kong was built by Carlo Rambaldi, with some contributions by Rick Baker” it is also said that Rick Baker was displeased with the way the effects turned out as he pressed for a beast that walked on all fours like a real ape. We would soon get this in 2005 Peter Jackson’s version.
Well that’s it on the information based on King Kong there was a copyright argument between Universal Studios and Paramount Studios, but that has since been resolved. Also I mentioned some of the behind-the-scenes and I further elaborated on the 40 to 50 foot version of the giant ape as well the two arms that were mistakenly created and some other information. I hope you got something out of this as it was interesting to me!
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2020.09.18 07:57 IrocDewclaw Kinda fits here. Customers who changed your life.

I want to know if a customer ever totally changed your perception of the world.
So me 1st I guess.
This is gonna be long, so buckle in.
The date is somewhere in the 1970s and I'm in my Jr year of highschool and pull a teacher for my American Lit class everyone has warned me about. A Mr. ****
Now Mr **** is known to be an old school hard ass, but also a....character in 1970s terms, suspected looks around Gay.
A small man, about 5' 5-6" and 135-140lbs Mr **** a sharp dresser, from 1950, and very refined. Think, English Butler crossed with Southern Plantation mint julip drinking pretentious Gentleman slight in size and a little effeminate in nature.
The girls loved him...safe, we guessed. Guys hated him....worried, and unsure I guess.
His curriculum consists of several reports of college level work with full footnotes and sources, about 3 a quarter.... And my favorite....100 word spelling tests every Friday.
I hated this man.
During all this misery I was forced to endure, I had to listen to how much fun this jerk was having with his "friend" Bobby. So many Bobby stories. Bobby had been his friend since grade school. Bobby was so much fun they did so many fun things together. Bobby was successful and took him on trips and had been his friend forever.
Ok, we get it. You got a boyfriend named Bobby.
(I couldn't have been more mistaken)
I was forced in his class both my jr and senior yrs of Highschool. I hated his class, but passed , graduated and went on with my life...No more Bullshit, no more Mr. ****
Started College, took a few jobs after high school to, you know...pay bills.
Jump ahead about 2 yrs and I'm working as a bartender in an local Italian Restaurant, still new and slowly being introduced to each regular when they come in, cause hey, treat these guys better cause they buy alot of booze sort of thing.
One night I'm introduced to a regular who've I've yet to encounter....and its Mr ****. Oh! Shit. I hate this guy.
Of course he remembers me as a former student and asks stuff you'd expect to be asked by a former teacher, how you been? Whats happened since school?...ect
Over the next few months though, I get to know Mr **** a little better. Karl (yea thats his real name, really Mods @ this point it doesn't matter I used his name) turns out Karl happens to be a really nice guy, fun to talk to and have at my bar. Many, many stories of his times growing up, many including his friend Bobby. You remember him right?
Then Karl disappears, gone for several weeks.
He doesn't come in the bar, no one has seen him.
Then one busy Friday night, a big black stretch limo pulls up to the front door of the restaurant and the driver gets out to let his passengers out .
I watch as 2 of ....uh...2 women of very high class status climb out....followed by....Karl? They walk into the bar area.
Now, I'm not stupid. I've seen women of....questionable means before, but these girls were of the $10k a night questionable means. Their shoes cost more then I made a month. The Fur coats...I'd have mortgage my house. We are talking BIG BIG BIG money here.
The girls head to the ladies room, Karl comes up to the bar. Orders his usual and a couple Old Fashions for the ladies.
I'm curious as hell, but try and play it cool.
"Missed ya Karl, been a few weeks"
Yea was on vacation, took a trip.
"Really? Where'd ya go?"
"Well, Bobby and I actually went white water rafting down the Colorado River"
"Really Karl? That sounds like fun."
"Yea it really was, rafting then camping along the river you should go sometime .'
Silence
Silence
"Damn it Karl! What the fuck? You don't just pull in here in a limo and 2 hi class hookers without and explanation!"
"Whats with the girls? I thought you are gay!"
Karl looks at me, and a smile crosses his face.... "I'm not gay, tho I've heard that before. I'm as straight as you are."
The limo, the girls, they were a gift from Bobby for being his friend and spending a couple weeks together.
Me: "Really? I always just assumed you were gay and Bobby and you were a couple."
Karl with a grin on his face asks me if I'd like to see a picture of him and Bobby. So hell yea.
He pulls a picture out and hands it to me. Its the 2 of them, arms around their shoulders in front of their raft and the Colorado river.
It takes a second.....a couple of looks......it can't....no...I look at Karl and he reaches out and turns over the picture. On the back is hand written:
To my longest and dearest friend. Bobby. Under that a signature that matched the picture
Robert Redford.
I don't know what got me thinking of this other then realizing just how much of an actual influence on my perception of people this man had on me. It was a shame just how long it took me to realize his influence.
I wondered what happened to Karl over the yrs and a google search proved my fears.
Karl passed several years ago and tho I hadn't seen him in yrs it hit me in the feels to see he was gone.
I don't know if he was telling me the truth but the memory of the Character of the man I knew doesn't allow me to think otherwise.
Finally, just in case the very rare Chance of Mr Redford or someone from his staff seeing this....
If true, Please relay my condolences to Mr Redford on the loss of his dear friend . He touched more lives then he knew, and influenced more then he expected.
He is truly missed.
submitted by IrocDewclaw to TalesFromYourServer [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 06:08 ParisHL Draft FRL06 Calendar released brings events to Argentina and Finland

Formula Racing League has revealed the draft FRL06 calendar, featuring 16 races with the Argentinian Grand Prix getting a place on the schedule.
Although it still needs to be formally approved by the FMA there is unlikely to be many changes made.
The season will begin in Brazil before finishing in Baku with Winter Testing taking place in Abu Dhabi. The order of some races has been shuffled around compared to this season such as Mexico now taking place in Round 3 whilst the United States returns with a race in the heart of Detroit.
Speaking at the announcement in Basel, Switzerland, FRL commercial chief Cees Klopper said he was delighted that contracts had been extended with Belgium and Canada during the mid-season votes last season:
The renewal of the Belgian Grand Prix and the confirmation of the Canadian Grand Prix are both examples of our direction to place fans at the heart of Formula Racing League, a vision shared with all our promoters,
We are travelling to Argentina for the first time can't wait to bring more action to South America.
Also joining the calendar for the first time is Finland, with their recently completed Kymi Ring hosting Round 15.
Argentina

Detroit City

Kymi Ring

FRL06 Calendar (Dates TBD)
Grand Prix Track ENG ACC DRG DWN OVERTK Contract
Brazilian Grand Prix Autódromo José Carlos Pace 7 13 13 7 Normal FRL07
Argentinian Grand Prix Autódromo Juan y Oscar Gálvez No 6 8 12 5 15 Very Hard FRL06
Mexican Grand Prix Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez 19 1 7 13 Easy FRL06
US Grand Prix Detroit Street Circuit 7 13 8 12 Normal FRL09
Canadian Grand Prix Circuit Gilles Villeneuve 18 2 14 6 Easy FRL07
Singapore Grand Prix Marina Bay Street Circuit 5 15 6 14 Very Hard FRL09
Japanese Grand Prix Suzuka Circuit 9 11 8 12 Hard FRL08
Bahrain Grand Prix Bahrain International Circuit 8 12 15 5 Normal FRL06
South African Grand Prix Kyalami 17 3 12 8 Normal FRL07
Monaco Grand Prix Circuit de Monaco 4 16 10 10 Very Hard FRL06
British Grand Prix Silverstone Circuit 12 8 6 14 Normal FRL08
Belgian Grand Prix Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps 17 3 15 5 Easy FRL08
German Grand Prix Nürburgring 9 11 8 12 Normal FRL06
Italian Grand Prix Autodromo Nazionale Monza 19 1 19 1 Very Easy FRL08
Finnish Grand Prix Kymi Ring 10 10 6 14 Hard FRL07
Azerbaijan Grand Prix Baku City Circuit 17 3 16 4 Easy FRL06
submitted by ParisHL to frl [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 04:38 eskitit5575 Date Card Ideas

Hello Bachelor Nation, I thought it would be a fun idea to give my GF a date card for an upcoming date, but I am drawing a blank on what to write. I wanted to do it Bach style sort of vague but alluding to something. The date isn’t super elaborate, but we are going to a nicer Italian Restaurant. If you could help me with some ideas on what to write for a potential date card I would really appreciate it. Thanks
submitted by eskitit5575 to thebachelor [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 03:19 Intrepid-Distance-77 Advice on cultural differences between me and my Arab boyfriend

Hi! Arabs Wanted to post here for some genuine insight.
I’m a white girl dating an Arab. He was born in America, moved to UAE at 5 and then moved to the US to work post college graduation. That’s how we met :)
Our relationship is pretty solid - there’s just a few cultural differences he tells me about and I want to, I suppose, get some validation for myself? In our most recent scuff he said “ask any Arab you know and he’ll tell you the same thing”, so I’m asking you guys :)
Few questions.
I’m Italian. We’re loud, annoying, obnoxious. Very different than his reserved, calm and proper family. We’ve been together a little under 4 years and while his parents still live in the UAE, they do come to the US once a year to visit.
Issue #1. He doesn’t want our parents to meet. He says it’s a cultural thing and the parents meeting is a formal occasion. We’re not engaged (mutually agreeable for the time being. In our mid 20’s and currently enjoy living life. Don’t see myself getting engaged for another 1-2ish years). Part of me wonders if it’s because he’s embarrassed of my, well, less than refined parents or because maybe he isn’t serious about me. What do you guys think?
Also..I want to travel to the UAE when he goes to visit each year. It’s beautiful and i want to see where he grew up and be immersed in his culture. He sort of told me that while his parents are “westernized” if you will, it’s still extremely taboo for me to go stay in his parents house. (I’ve met his parents multiple times btw). It just feels weird because he comes to stay at my own parents house all the time. Obviously they dont care.
Shukran❤️
Also: apologize for if I put “post flair” wrong!
submitted by Intrepid-Distance-77 to arabs [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 03:08 imawilcox89 I don’t want to tell my in-laws that I’m pregnant because they think we’re “being reckless” during COVID and cause stress, what should I do?

A little background, my husband’s nephew (10M) was a Premi, his lungs never fully developed and his pediatrician told my SIL that he would die if he got sick with COVID. So obviously they are going to extreme measures to stay safe, which I completely understand and don’t take any offense to. You have to protect your family.
Now, my MIL & FIL, whom my husband and I love dearly, will do ANYTHING for their grandkids and are adhering to my SIL’s every demand so they can be indoors with the grandkids. For example, they haven’t left the house since March, will only shop at a store if it has curbside, wear N95s at pick up, wipe down anything someone else touched, they haven’t seen any friends, don’t go to the doctor (my MIL is in chronic pain and needs severely surgeries but those have been put on hold), etc. it’s extreme. My MIL has also told my husband “I had my time with you, all I care about is my grand babies- you don’t understand because you don’t have kids or grandchildren”. Ouch. There have been a few other poorly worded comments and my husband is working hard to draw stronger boundaries.
I wouldn’t consider us reckless... we only see my parents and our very close friends (they’re a couple so I’m talking 2 people here, both of whom take the same precautions as we do). We ALWAYS wear masks when going out, IF we go into a store we wear N95s and we work from home. We go out very sparingly maybe every other week. Wash our hands when we get home, etc.
We’ve had dinner in MIL/ FIL’s backyard 3 or 4 times with everyone. We have to sit at least 30 feet away at a separate table and pretty much have to yell to communicate. They won’t let us in the house, even when my husband had to use the bathroom REALLY badly - we had to rush home and he pretty much exploded, thank god we only live 10 minutes away. We got tested and when the test came back negative they still wouldn’t see us. Even before we found out we were pregnant I told my husband that I’m not doing that anymore. Sorry, but I won’t be treated like a leper, we’re being safe.
I just found out I’m pregnant (7 weeks) with our first child and I know they’ll be over the moon. But I think it’s going to cause a LOT of stress for us. I have to go to the doctor... sorry. We both work high pressure/high performance jobs so we avoid any additional stress like the plague. They’re going to say we’re not being careful enough and try to guilt us to be more careful every single time they talk to us. Plus, how are we going to tell them? Over Zoom? My MIL is going to cry and it’s going to really bother her that she can’t be with us in person (she’s Italian, so very emotional). BUT if we tell them in person, they’re still going to act super weird, probably stay away from us and that will make her cry too. Honestly, she would cry the entire pregnancy because she can’t see us. It was actually my husband’s idea not to say anything until we’re MUCH closer to the due date. Not sure how to handle, obviously we’re sooooo excited and want to tell them!
TL;DR - I’m pregnant and can’t decide if it would be better not to tell my in laws because they’d make us feel awful and stress us out over COVID concerns.
submitted by imawilcox89 to relationship_advice [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 02:02 OTSPOKN 8ight After: if you don't believe, then you have nothing to fear - With Photos -- Part 2

Part 1

It's here

Tuesday October 8, 2019
As I return home from walking Tica and Pismo, a high pitch voice yells my name. I turn, and there she is, filled with cheer. Christina skips her way to me and begs to play with the dogs. Her big brown eyes are sadder than my Labradors. The pups seem to love her, so I cave.
Deanna arrives home from work and is disappointed when the dogs aren't there to greet her at the door. It gets worse when she discovers it's because they're playing with Christina on our patio.
I try to reason with Deanna, "What am I supposed to do? She followed us home on the dog walk again."
"Well, how would you like it if some challenged guy followed me home?"
"Does he have, like super special strength or something?" I get side-eyed at this and go on to explain, "I don't want to be mean because she's special."
"She's also very pretty."
"So she's pretty special!" I joke. Deanna is not amused.
I have a talk with Christina to tell her she can't come over anymore. I tell her no more dog walks. "Why?" she pleads. I explain that she doesn't have a dog, so it's like she is just walking with me. She seems to understand. She even utters the words, "I crossed a line."
Back in the house I find Deanna in her office. She tells me she wants to get a gun. I'm like, What? First religion, now guns; she really has swung right.
I'm not anti-gun, we've just never felt a need to own one. I have an alarm on the house, a nice fence, two barking dogs, and 16 security cameras. That should scare any intruder away. If someone gets past that, and I need to pull a gun, then that intruder is probably intent on killing me and has already formulated a plan that they will most likely succeed with.
Let's face it. I know this is a sad thought, but if someone wants to kill you, they will. A gun will do you no good. I'm not afraid of guns. We've fired guns before, but I always felt that if I don't buy one, then that's one less gun in the world. But now Deanna is talking all kinds of crazy.
I veer the subject away from guns and try to convince her to sleep in our bedroom tonight. The last four nights she's slept on the couch in her office. Instead, she convinces me to sleep on the pull-out couch in here with her. I agree, figuring this will blow over in a day or two.
That night, I get into bed, and Deanna reads a Bible verse. I kid you not, she has a Bible in hand and reads, "Keep this book of the law always on your lips; meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful. Joshua 1:08."
I'm like, "Where did you get a Bible?" She says she found the book out back and thinks it's Christina's. I don't really want to have the Christina conversation, nor do I want to have a biblical conversation, so I just let it pass. We exchange good night kisses and go to sleep.
Wednesday October 9, 2019
As I write today's journal, I pull up the security footage from last night to transcribe Deanna's Bible quote correctly.
I open files, hunting for the right one. I notice the door is closed in some videos and open in others. I narrow it down to the last clip with an open door. As the clip plays the door slowly closes for no apparent reason. Next, to my horror, the sheets around Deanna's feet flutter, then with a quick whoosh they blow off her. Deanna kicks. She sits up, gets out of bed, kneels and prays over me. I click through a bunch of clips and find that she prayed for over an hour before finally getting back into bed.
Surveillance Footage capture of Deanna praying over Vince.
When Deanna gets home from work, I show her the clip of her praying. She's frightened by it and starts to sob. She begs to know if she's ever done that before. I tell her I don't know and that there's a ton of footage to sift through. I decide, maybe mistakenly, to not show her the door close and the sheet flutter. I worry it will only scare her more.
That night, she pops sleeping pills before bed. Her rationale is that they'll put her into a deep sleep; this way, she won't be able to get up and pray.
After struggling to fall asleep myself, I finally nod off, only to be woken by a door slam. I spring up and turn to the closed door. I'm sure it was open when we went to bed. Deanna is still sound asleep and doesn't move. I climb out the foot of the bed and slowly creep my way to the door. I kneel down to peek through the threshold crack to see if someone is on the other side. I can't make anything out. I stand up and reach for the knob. The door opens on its own. I stop to consider that maybe the latch didn't catch from the slam. Sometimes doors do that, right? I peek out through the open crack, half-expecting to see someone standing there. There isn't.
I tiptoe out and turn on the hall light. I peer into my office and flip on that light. It's clear. A noise emits from the hall. I follow it, but it subsides. Again I hear something; this time from the game room. I flick on that light and scan the room. Nothing. I canvass the house room-by-room; everything is clear. I find the dogs asleep in our bedroom. They seem safe and happy in there. Why doesn't Deanna? I double-check the alarm and make sure the front door is locked. The house is secure. I head back to Deanna's office. She's still sound asleep. I examine the door. It swings freely and appears to be fine. I can't find any reason it would slam. I leave the hall light on and climb back into bed.
Thursday October 10, 2019
I pull up the security footage from last night and see the sheets flutter again. This time Deanna's body sorta jolts like she got an electrical zap. A moment later she is pulled into the bed or possibly pushed. I notice something in the hall. There seems to be a figure moving on the far wall, but I can't focus on it. When I play the footage back slowly, I don't see anything, but at regular speed, something is there. I let the video play, and suddenly a shadow sweeps across the door. This one is easy to see, even as a still frame. A moment later, the door slams.
Surveillance Footage capture of Deanna and Vince sleeping as a human looking shadow passes over the white bedroom door.
I scan through the rest of last night's footage, but see nothing else. I don't know how to process this. My mind oscillates between reason and what I'm seeing. Who do I show the video to? The police? The news? My friends? People will assume I faked this. I certainly can't show Deanna. She'll flip out.
I decide it's best to first build a case. I need a substantial amount of undeniable proof before I show this stuff around. I have 16 cameras running 24 hours a day for 7 days, which is 2,688 hours of footage to comb through. That's an impossible amount for me to tackle. I decide to back up the last 7 days of surveillance footage to another drive. I turn to my journals and figure I can compile a record of any unusual events. I can use these records to narrow down which surveillance files might be worth examining.
Michael arrives and interrupts my hunt. He's here to test out my gimbal. He played with it a bit at the BBQ, and now he's considering purchasing one. I contemplate showing him the footage; surely he'll believe me, but then, shouldn't I have believed Deanna?
First, I test the waters and ask if he believes in God. He doesn't. He says he's unconvinced. I expected this, as we had this conversation years ago, and since that time, neither of us has been particularly religious. However, Michael became an online ordained reverend and has performed a few wedding ceremonies for his friends; thus, I wasn't sure if his views changed.
He did say he thought God was an "unfalsifiable hypothesis," and compared him to Santa Claus. I don't know what that means, but I'm pretty sure I don't want to show him the footage yet - at least not until I get a better understanding of how to explain things.
We head out to the parking lot so he can run around with the gimbal and test its smoothness. The gardener's truck is there, and I can hear Juan's blower polluting the air with noise. Thankfully, we aren't testing any audio equipment.
Michael runs through the open gate toward the pool. He goes around the pool and onto our wooden deck, which overlooks the dry Los Angeles River below. He yells for me, "Come quick, the gardener has fallen off the deck!" Alarmed, I sprint.
Camera VLOG still of broken deck with gardener laying at bottom of hill.
Michael is already at the bottom of the hill by the time I begin my descent. The wooden deck rail is broken and partially hanging off. It's probably a fifteen-foot fall to where Juan has landed. I climb down to find Juan unconscious on his back. He might have hit his head on a paver stone, but there's no blood.
I grab Juan's chest and shake him. I think he's alive. I hope he's alive. I need him to be alive. I realize I ran down with my iced coffee in hand. I quickly pop the lid off and throw it in Juan's face. The coffee flows up his nose, causing him to choke to consciousness. I grab his head to cradle him and finally exhale a sigh of relief.
After a few minutes, Juan sits up. Michael runs to fetch him water while I stay behind. His English is broken, but he explains he was blowing the deck when he leaned back and fell. He blames himself. I'm confused, as the deck has plenty of nails holding it together. It's never been flimsy before. I offer to take him to the hospital; he refuses. I offer again; he says to call his brother. I take his phone and call.
He speaks to his brother in Spanish. It sounds like they argue. Juan hangs up. I ask if everything is okay; he nods, then stands up, but quickly gets woozy and slumps back down. I catch him and ease him back to the dirt. He laughs embarrassingly. Michael gets back with water and Gatorade. Juan drinks up and rests. We sit and rehash the events that just transpired, as if we're telling old war stories.
After a while, Juan stands again. He's fine now. He stretches. Michael and I exchange looks. Should we take him to the hospital? At that moment, his brother, Cruz, appears at the top of the deck, looking down. Spanish is exchanged again, along with a chuckle. Juan translates. He says Cruz is asking why he broke the deck and says Juan will have to pay for it. I shake my head no and assure them everything is fine. Cruz chuckles; it seems like it was just fun brotherly harassment.
We get Juan back to his truck. Both he and his brother insist everything is okay. They will be okay. Surprisingly, Juan does look okay. I tell them both to call me if they need anything and they leave.
Michael and I go back to the deck to marvel at how Juan could take a fall like that and live. We also ponder how big a lawsuit this could be if he'd died.
Later, I recount the events for Deanna. She's blown away. I offhandedly remark, "Thank God he's going to be okay."
Surprisingly, Deanna retorts, "Wouldn't God have saved him?"
I'm confused. I thought she was all "God power," but tonight she goes on to claim that she never really believed there was a God. I decide it's best not to indulge this conversation now.
Deanna is on edge all night. I put on Friends. The show always seems to cheer her up. Tonight, it doesn't. I know she's angry, but I can't actually point to a single thing, and if I do, it'll just spark a fight, which it seems is what she wants.
We sleep in her office again. I get the cold shoulder, as she rolls away from me without so much as a kiss. I wish her good night, and she does reciprocate, so maybe all isn't lost.
I lie there awake and listen to the silence. I focus on Deanna. The gentle rise and fall of her back, up and down, up and down; she is out. I contemplate staying up all night to comb through the security footage. I think about the shadow. I keep watching the door, wondering if it will appear. I think about Juan. I hope he's okay. At some point I nod off, but suddenly I'm jarred awake. Deanna gasps for air as if she just broke free from drowning.
I'm dazed. My eyes are heavy and won't open. Is this a dream? Is everything a dream? I ask if she's okay, but I'm also not sure if asking is a dream. I manage to pry open my eyes. My head clears as I see Deanna exit the room. She hobbles like Frankenstein's monster. I get up to follow her. I call out her name. She doesn't answer. I'm getting creeped out.
I follow her into the dark hall and switch on the light. She hobbles down the hall toward the foyer. I wave my hand in front of her with no reaction. Her eyes are open, but she doesn't see me. She is sleepwalking.
Surveillance Footage capture of Vince waving his hand in front of sleepwalking Deanna
I have never seen this in my life. I always thought this was a Hollywood gimmick, but here she is hobbling around the house, eyes open and unconscious. I stay near her in case she falls or collapses. I wonder, do sleepwalkers collapse?
Deanna approaches the alarm panel and keys in the disarm code. Maybe she's messing with me? Sleepwalking is one thing, but how is she conscious enough to key in the code? She turns and hobbles back down the hall. I reset the alarm, then follow her.
She heads to the game room sliding glass door. I grab the door handle to stop her from opening the slider. She hobbles right into the glass. Not hard. Not like she could break it. It's a slow hobble into the door, as if she was going to pass through it, but instead the glass blocks her. She tries repeatedly like a wind up toy banging her head on the door with a light thud.
I always heard you shouldn't mess with a sleepwalker, but I place my hand between her head and the glass. I reach for her shoulder and nudge her. She is receptive to my guidance. I lead her back to her office.
I get her to sit on the bed and lean her over to lie down. I gather the covers, when suddenly she wakes. She screams! I scream and jump back. At that moment the alarm sounds. I look at Deanna; she's confused. I'm confused. The alarm is blaring. I head out of the room to the alarm panel. I key in the disarm code. The display shows Game Room Slider as the fault.
I rush back to the game room, and the slider is open a good three feet! I get angry. I don't know why. I'm mad the door is open, since it shouldn't be. I close the slider and make sure it's locked. I turn on all the lights in the house and reset the alarm. I canvass the house, room by room, and I look in each closet. The dogs hibernate in our bedroom; they don't seem to want to leave that room.
I find nothing. Deanna falls back to sleep. I stay up and watch Friends all night. When the sun rises, I finally pass out.

The Day After

Friday October 11, 2019
I wake up around noon. Deanna is home. I guess she skipped work. I head into my office to watch last night's footage. I speed past Deanna sleepwalking and go to the game room slider. I'm aghast. The door just floats open on its own. I can't explain it.
Deanna watches over my shoulder. She's still angry, I think. She seems stiff, almost robotic. She's more concerned with her sleepwalking than the slider and wants me to go back to that footage. I continue to examine the slider though. I just can't figure this out.
I hear a noise coming from the game room. Deanna hears it too. We proceed to investigate. I peer into the game room. The noise comes from outside the slider. It's Christina playing with the dogs on the patio. Now Deanna is definitely pissed. Suddenly, I'm pissed too.
Deanna storms out onto the patio, grabs up Tica and leads Pismo into the house. There's a third dog on the patio, a little Chihuahua that I've never seen before.
Groggy, confused, and mad, I yell at Christina. She claims I told her if she got a dog, she could come over, so she got one. I tell her she's trespassing, that we have cameras, that she has to go. She scoops up the little dog and storms off, crying. I feel really bad, but what alternative do I have?
I go back inside and catch Deanna in her office with a gun. She sees me coming and quickly sits on it in an attempt to conceal the weapon. I go for it, and we struggle. She puts up a fight, but I'm determined. I yank the gun out from under her.
"Where the hell did you get a gun?" I demand.
"I bought it."
"You brought a gun into our house?!"
"We need protection from crazy fans and doors opening up in the middle of the night. I don't know, maybe it was her, maybe she opened the door?"
I release the clip. The gun is loaded.
She quips, "The safety is on."
I explain if she wants to have a gun, then we need to learn how to use it properly.
I'm not happy about the gun. This is something we should have discussed and decided on together. She could argue that about me and the security cameras. I'm pretty sure they're not in the same league, but I feel like it's the least of my problems. The gun is already here, now I need to mitigate it, and that starts with lessons.
Saturday October 12, 2019
Today we meet our friend Wes at the shooting range. He is very proficient with guns and gives us the basic safety course. We shoot off a bunch of rounds. Deanna seems elated to be firing the gun. This isn't the first time we've fired guns. Last time was when she was first hired at the zoo; we rented a gun at a range and shot targets. This was to prepare her for the dreadful day a dangerous animal might escape. Today she's like a kid with a shiny new toy. Maybe the last time we shot was under bleaker circumstances, but why would this be a happier one? I don't question her. I'm just happy to see her happy.
Deanna firing the gun at the shooting range.
Sunday October 13, 2019
It's a beautiful day. The pool is 88 degrees, the weather is about 78, which is nice, but it makes you want to stay under the water, allowing it to swallow you like a cozy blanket. We frolic in the pool, toss the ball for the dogs, and grill up some food. We even dine Italian aperitivo style with salami and wine, as we watch the sun set.
Monday October 14, 2019
I wake from my wine coma around 3 a.m. Deanna is not in bed with me. I call out for her, but she doesn't answer. I get up and cautiously make my way through the house. Again noise emits from the game room. I follow the noise and find the slider open. Coming from outside is what sounds like a chisel hitting a rock.
I run back into Deanna's office to grab my phone. I flip on the camera light and follow the chisel sounds. As I approach the pool, I hear the noise coming from the deck. Crap, the deck is still broken; what if Deanna fell off? I rush to the rail.
I peer over the broken deck and find Deanna at the bottom of the hill. She has a shovel in her hand and has dug several holes. I call out to her. She doesn't react.
Deanna digging a hole at the bottom of the hill in the middle of the night.
I hurry down the hill and ask her what she is doing. Gravely, her eyes pierce right through me. She laughs a deep, hushed, "Heh. Heh. Heh." I feel my spine collapse.
I flip off the camera and gingerly approach her. She appears to be sleepwalking again. I reach for the shovel, and she lets it go without resistance. I set it down, then take her by the shoulders and guide her back to bed. She eases in and lies down with no problems. Thankfully, she doesn't wake and scream at me.
Tuesday October 15, 2019
Deanna has no recollection of digging last night. She denies it and claims I'm messing with her. I show her the footage, and she insists it's not real. I assure her the video is not fake. She begins clicking around and opening the backed up surveillance footage on the computer.
I decide that between Juan's fall and Deanna's digging that I should move a couple of the wireless security cameras down to the bottom of the hill.
While tackling the job, I pass by my office a few times to grab tools and occasionally I pop in to check the camera feed. I wonder when Deanna will come across the sheet flutter or the shadow footage. She remains focused on the computer, poking through clips. She stops me to ask a question. I'm expecting to have a conversation over the unexplainable footage, but instead she asks me about the file name.
I explain to her that I had turned off the ugly on-screen security date and file stamp that superimposes into the camera footage. I wanted a cleaner, timeless video file to use in VLOGS. On-screen stamps aren't necessary anyway because the system names the recorded files with a timestamp. For example CH15-1014-010800_011059: CH15 is CHannel 15 or Camera 15, -1014 is October 14th, -010800_011059 is the recorded time from 1:08 a.m. to 1:10 and 59 seconds. The DVR breaks files into three-minute chunks.
Deanna has the footage from the ceiling fan fall and her praying open on the computer. She points out that both of these clips happened on different days, but in the same 010800_011059 time-slot.
I tease her about it being creepy and that we should have an exorcism at 1:08 a.m. I even invoke a Jim Carrey impression from Ace Ventura that we should "Exorcise the demons." Deanna is against it, but I lose myself in what was suppose to be a light-hearted joke.
I sorta feel like I want to challenge faith. The shadow, the sheets, doors, cups, and Deanna's moods, is there a reason for it? Is it real? I want proof or no proof. I'm in this weird borderline. I wonder if I give in to Deanna's belief and commit that maybe we can finally put this stuff to rest.
I convince Deanna to stand at the foot of our waterbed at 1:08 a.m. She nervously holds the Portate cross charm from around her neck. I grab Christina's Bible and prepare to chant.
Surveillance Footage capture of Deanna and Vince in their bedroom. Vince hold the bible up as Deanna holds the Portate cross.
Deanna begs me not to do this. She suggests we hire a priest.
I retort, "A virgin! This is not a job for a virgin! Look, I've seen The Exorcist like a hundred times. I have a Bible. I totally got this."
I call for the ghost to move something, to do something, anything. Nothing happens, except Deanna gets woozy. I attribute it to her being dramatic. I demand the ghost move the door. Deanna claims something is there; I seize that moment and begin the chant from The Exorcist:
I cast you out, ghostly spirit!
In the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ!
It is He who commands you!
Be gone from this house.
In the name of the Father. In the name of the Son.
In the name of the Holy Spirit.
It is the power of Christ that compels you.
I continue to chant, "It is the power of Christ that compels you!"
Suddenly Deanna's arms fall to her sides, her palms open, fingers outstretch. She exhales a loud, guttural, "Get outta my house!" She collapses to the ground. I'm stunned.
I drop the Bible and rush to her. I'm frantic; she's unresponsive. I shake her but she doesn't move. I scramble to get my phone from the tripod to call for help. With a sudden loud, prolonged gasp for air, Deanna wakes with a deep inhale. Relieved, I grab for her, "Oh God. Oh thank God."

The Hunt

Wednesday October 16, 2019
I visit the Los Angeles County Registrar Recorder office to do a property search. I'm able to print out a list of the previous owners of my house.
I immediately note on the list that the people who owned my house before me, the ones who were foreclosed on, have the last name Spottiswoode. That doesn't sound Mexican at all, but I'm thankful it isn't a generic John Smith. The name is unique enough that I figure I should be able to track them down on the Internet.
I force Deanna to sleep on the couch in my office. I want to be able to keep an eye on her while I search online. She doesn't want to sleep on our waterbed and I don't want to sleep in her office anymore. That leaves my office. The dogs even come in to sleep with us. I thought they preferred the master bedroom because that's where they've always slept, but now I wonder if they were just avoiding Deanna's office?
I search the Internet until 2:30 in the morning. The even sound of Deanna's breathing fills the air. I haven't heard any other noises, so I decide it's time to crash. I tuck Deanna in on the couch, and toss a pillow on the floor in front of her; this way I can block her if she gets up to dig.
About a half an hour later, I wake to the blaring house alarm. Deanna is not on the couch. I call for her and get no answer. The dogs are still with me. I get up and scramble for a camera monopod to defend myself against an intruder. My phone rings. I already know it's going to be the alarm company. I give them the verbal pass-code, and they tell me the alarm triggered because the wrong disarm code was entered. They're concerned that someone might be in the house.
I make my way to the alarm panel, and explain that I had changed the disarm code recently and my wife didn't know the new code. I key in the correct code and tell them all is fine and not to send the police. I hang up and go searching for Deanna. Naturally, I check the game room slider first and there she is, standing in front of the closed door. She's sleepwalking again. I guide her back to my office couch.
Sunday October 20, 2019
Jackpot! I finally tracked down a work address and phone number for Mr. Steve Spottiswoode. I'm going to pay him a visit tomorrow.
Over the last several days, I've really been editing my journals to assemble a clear record of the events. I've been able to cross-reference emails with photo dates and times on my phone to reconstruct a clearer picture of what's transpired.
I've also been backing up the security camera drives and gathering the footage on a timeline. Deanna is right; things seem to happen at eight after one in the morning. I still have a bunch of footage to sift through, but what I've seen so far makes me think I might be able to assemble all this into a comprehensive documentary.
submitted by OTSPOKN to nosleep [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 00:45 Noroark 23 [F4A] Looking for a nerd who will make me laugh

Single/Taken/Complicated: Single; has never dated before.
Seeking Relationship/Friends/Squish/Other: Relationship (though I'm not opposed to making friends as well!)
Romantic Orientation: Biromantic
Gender: Cis female
Pronouns: She/her
Age: 23
Height/Build: 5'6.5", 117 lbs.
Physical Description: Pale skin (mostly Italian/Irish). Very long dark brown hair. Green eyes. Glasses. Flat as a board. Kind of ugly, lol.
Personality Description: INTJ. I used to suffer from social anxiety, though I have made a lot of improvement and am continuing to do so. I can still be a little reserved, but once you get to know me, I can be a pretty fun person. When I'm first getting to know someone, I'm most comfortable talking through text. I really enjoy talking about my interests. I'm not exactly quick-witted, but I can come up with clever material if I'm given time to think about it. I'm very introspective; my mental health isn't the greatest, and I like being able to vent to someone (although I hate feeling like a burden). I am also a good listener and eager to help others with their troubles.
Interests: Gaming--I compete in Super Smash Bros. tournaments and I just got into streaming. I'm a big Nintendo fan, and I really like Pokémon and Animal Crossing. I'm not really into movies, TV, or books (aside from popular science). There are a few anime series that I like (mostly Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood and JoJo's Bizarre Adventure), but I'm not super into it. My favorite music genre is alt-rock. I love animals! I have an Australian shepherd, two cats, a chinchilla, seven tarantulas, and some fish. I collect a variety of things, including amiibo and plush Pokémon. I used to write and draw a lot, but now I only do those things every once in a while. I'm a biology nerd, and I'm studying to be a high school living environment teacher.
Location: Western New York. I'm not really interested in a super distant LDR, though I'm willing to date people in neighboring states if we can meet up every now and again.
Notes: I have no preference when it comes to appearance. I'm most attracted to a good sense of humor, and having similar interests is important to me. I don't like physical touch, but I would be willing to cuddling if it would make my partner happy. I'm sex-repulsed and not willing to compromise. My ideal date would be going out for coffee, taking a walk through the woods to look for cool bugs, and then coming home to play some Smash.
submitted by Noroark to asexualdating [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 23:09 leprecaun8 Never have a pizza date when introducing a new S.O. to your family

Imagine you bringing home a S.O. to your family to meet your parents for the first time, they are perfect in every way, funny, personable, way out of your league and loves you for everything you are.
You are happy to finally introduce someone to your parents who you want to show off, someone they will take one look at and smile ear to ear because they know they will treat you right. Your parents said it would be just a very casual dinner, your mother has a tendency of understate things so you’re assuming a thanksgiving level dinner. Your mother has the best cooking. You are driving to your old house and reminiscing about the way she used to make you the fluffiest mashed potatoes, steak that would melt in your mouth, your S.O. Shares your happiness, smiling to you while you drive and tell them about your favorite meals.
But to your horror, your mother wasn’t kidding about a simple casual dinner, she has had pizza delivered...
Your eyes widen as your parents and your new partner exchange hugs and greetings, you barley feel your father pat you in the back and tell you “nice catch”. You knew that this perfect night would now not get any worse than what was about to come...
A few jokes were shared (none shared by you), a glass of wine or two was drunk (You several glasses more so), and seats were taken. The door bell rings and your father gets up to answer the door. You consider running, the option of never seeing any of these people again may be more beneficial than the alternative. The pizza boy has been paid and left, your moment of possible freedom has passed. And now you must reap what thou hath soughed.
Your father asks to say a prayer and you all hold hands, you pray to anyone listening to smite you now, you’ve seen this once before on a personal date between the two of you, and it will all happen again.
Your father begins to open the pizza box only to hear a banshee shriek from beside you. You never wanted to hear that sound again, it kept you awake at night. Your now parentally-despised partner rips the pizza box from your father’s hands, climbing on the table to do so with more strength than you could ever muster. You watch as their breath steadies into a lustful exhale as she slowly opens the box, anticipating their next meal.
Your parents watch in horror as they then attempt to fit their adult sized body under the lid of the pizza box and begins ripping the cheese from the base with their teeth, taking larger and larger chucks out each time and licking the sauce off the crust of the pizza
Your family sits there stunned as she silently grunts and slurps the cheesy skin off the Italian dish, glancing back and forth between you and your S.O., you can tell she has finished when they emerge from the box, leaving nothing but the crust left.
No more words were exchanged that night, no more food was eaten, with the exception of faint farewells coming from your paralyzed parent still sitting in the chairs at the dinner table as you leave the front door, you don’t know where she is now, or what she does anymore, but you do know never to have a pizza date while visiting your parents ever again.
submitted by leprecaun8 to stories [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 20:42 StevenStevens43 The birth of the Antiochus

The birth of the Antiochus
The Dardani:
Throughout the ages in this region, the word "Dan" has prevailed in seemingly many forms and abbreviations.
From the tribes of Dan in Israel, to the Denyans in Egypt, to the Tuatha de Dannan in Ireland, to the Danes in Denmark.
By the 4th Century BC, the Dardani were the strongest group in europe fighting against the Messenaean Greek expansion.
(Regards to the photo beneath.. When one see's a place name that contains two LL's, such as "Illyria", then one might suspect it has some pertinence with the Welsh language).
Dardani
The Dardani were a Paleo-Balkan tribe which lived in a region which was named Dardania) after their settlement there.[1][2]
Link for photo
Dardania
Celtic invasion:
You see, in this area, there was an "ongoing" power struggle going on between peoples with allegiances to the more Northern territories such as Scandinavia, and North western territories such as Albion/Britain, and those with allegiances more to traditional europeans and Anatolians, such as Greeks.
By the 4th century BC, the power struggle in this region was on scales, going back and forth like a yoyo, and in the 4th Century BC the Celts came down hard, and established a very powerful base, named Dardania.
Dardania
The Kingdom of Dardania was attested since the 4th century BC in ancient sources reporting the wars the Dardanians waged against Macedon. After the Celtic invasion of the Balkans weakened the state of the Macedonians and Paeonians, the political and military role of the Dardanians began to grow in the region
Link for photo_DARDANIAN_KINGDOMS_EXTENT_DURING_230_BC.png)
Illyria
Albania:
Now, Dardani is pretty much synonymous with Albania.
Names
The names Dardania appears to be connected to Albanian dardhë.[13] In 1854, Johann Georg von Hahn was the first to propose that the names Dardanoi and Dardania) were related to the Albanian word dardhë ("pear, pear-tree"),
Link for photo
The Alba Albanian flag
Greko-Roman:
In fact, the contemporary understanding that Greko-Romans, unlike indigenous Greeks, or Indigenous Italians, are in fact the descendants of multi-culturistic Greek diversity, would mean they are also partially the descendants of peoples from the Balkans, that probably originate from more Baltic lands than Balkan, had to be explained away by the early Roman emperors that were now trying to justify wars against the Dardani.
And they admitted (in not so many words), that they are partially descended from Dardani peoples, but that the Dardani are unevolved partial ancestors, and they do not have the same levels of sophistication as the Greeks, that Greco-Romans are also descended from, thus, they are barbarians.
ancient sources
The rulers of some of the great powers of antiquity, such as Epirus), Macedonia) and Rome, claimed a Trojan ancestry linking themselves to Dardanus), who according to the tradition was the founder of the Trojan ruling house. But if Dardanus and the tribes over which he ruled were descended from the Balkan people, who were considered "barbarians" by the Romans, it would have been an embarrassment. Thus, by Roman times the connection was explained by a movement that occurred in the opposite direction proposing that Dardanus caused the settling of the Dardani west of the Thracians, accepting the version that the Dardani were a people related to the Trojans, but that they had degenerated to a state of "barbarism" in their new settlement).[19]
Link for photo
Beheaded barbarian
Alexander the Great:
The Dardani would expand their power, conquering the whole of Macedonia, and would almost be united with the Persian Achaemenid empire, when Alexander the Great would come along and reclaim Macedonia.
4th century BC
In 334 BC, under the leadership of Cleitus, the son of Bardylis, the Dardani, in alliance with other Illyrian tribes attacked Macedonia held by Alexander the Great. The Dardani managed to capture some cities but were eventually defeated by Alexander's forces.[21]
Link for photo.jpg)
Alexander the Great
Hellenstic empire:
Of course, under Alexanders reign, Macedonia would be at the centre of the worlds biggest empire, and the Achaemenid empire would become collapsed.
Alexander the Great
Alexander endeavoured to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea" and invaded India in 326 BC, winning an important victory over the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes. He eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops, dying in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's surviving generals and heirs.
Pharoah:
Of course, his place in history would be cemented when he removed the Persians from the Egyptian throne, and became crowned Pharoah, in 332 BC, thus founding the foundations for the Ptolemic empire.
Egypt
Alexander advanced on Egypt in later 332 BC, where he was regarded as a liberator.[80] He was pronounced son of the deity Amun at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in the Libyan desert.[81] Henceforth, Alexander often referred to Zeus-Ammon as his true father, and after his death, currency depicted him adorned with the Horns of Ammon as a symbol of his divinity.[82] During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death.[83]
Roman alliances:
From the get go, the Ptolomists were keen to form alliances with their sophisticated cousins, the Romans.
Foreign affairs)
He had much less success in his attempts to negotiate a peace between the Macedonia and the Roman Republic in the First Macedonian War (215-205 BC).[24] Ptolemy made large financial contributions to a number of Greek cities in order to gain their favour. He was responsible for the city walls at Gortyn in Crete[25] Ptolemy was honoured for his benefactions with monuments and cults in his honour at various cities, including Rhodes and Oropus[26][27]
In the west, Ptolemy maintained friendly neutrality with the Roman Republic and Carthage, which were fighting against one another in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). He received a friendly embassy from the Romans in 210 BC, requesting a gift of grain to help feed the starving populus. It is unknown how Ptolemy responded to this request.[28]
Link for photo
Ptolomy IV
Assassination of Alexander IV:
However, the war was far from over, and Alexander the Greats 14 year old son would be assassinated before he could rule Egypt, passing the Pharoahship to the Roman-Greco Ptolomy's.
Death of Alexander IV
However, Green thinks that Heracles was killed after Alexander IV's assassination.[8]
Link for photo
Alexandros IV
Dardanian alliance:
The Dardanian elitists, in true aristocratic fashion, tried to get their foot on the throne another way, by offering to protect the Hellenstic empire against Celtic invasion, by forming allegiances.
Which of course, would result in concessions.
However Ptolomy quite wisely refused, and decided to fight the Celtic armies himself.
1st - 3rd century BC
Celts were present in Dardania in 279 BC.[25] The Dardanian king offered to help the Macedonians with 20,000 soldiers against the Celts, but this was refused by Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos.[26]
brennus:
Now, another king that was involved in this invasion beginning around 279 BC, was one of the Brennos brothers.
If you would like to know which one of the brothers it was, and what country he was king of, then simply go to the lobby after reading this article, and read the article "Belinus and Brennius and the sack of rome".
But, Belinas, king of Albany and Cambria, was reported to have committed suicide during this war.
It is likely he did so by jumping off the tower of Apollo.
To find out why it is likely that he jumped off the tower of apollo, simply see other articles in lobby.
Brennus
Another Brennus) was one of the leaders of the army of Gauls who attempted to invade and settle in the Greek mainland in 278 BC. After a looting spree and after managing to pass Thermopylae by encircling the Greek army and forcing it to retreat he made his way to the rich treasury at Delphi but he was defeated by the re-assembled Greek army. Brennus was heavily injured at the battle of Delphi and committed suicide there.
Link for photo#/media/File:Naxos_Sphinx_with_humans_for_size.jpg)
Tower of Apollo
Belgae:
Now, it is very likely that one of the main armies of the Brennos, during their sack of Rome, and conquest of Macedonia, prior to attempting to conquer Athens, were the Belgae.
In fact, Brennius and Belinus where likely one of the Belgae themselves, as "Belgae" was just part of a wider branch of Gaelic speaking Gauls that spread from Britain, Ireland and throughout mainland europe.
The differences between Belgae, and other Gauls, would be simple dialectics, with one another still able to speak to eachother, even if in a totally different accent, or, with slightly different spellings and pronounications.
Beli and Belinus
The consensus among linguists is that the ethnic name Belgae comes from the Proto-Celtic root \belg-* or \bolg-* meaning "to swell (particularly with angebattle fury/etc.)", cognate with the Dutch adjective gebelgd "very angry" (weak perfect participle of the verb belgen "to become angry") and verbolgen "being angry" (strong perfect participle of obsolete verbelgen "to make angry"), as well as the Old English verb belgan, "to be angry" (from Proto-Germanic \balgiz), derived ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European root *\bhelgh-* ("to swell, bulge, billow"). Thus, a Proto-Celtic ethnic name \Bolgoi* could be interpreted as "the people who swell (particularly with angebattle fury)".[3]
Link for photo
Belgia
Julius Caesar:
Now, a lot of confusion and damage was caused by the politics of Julius Caesar, who decided to draw lines between Gallic countries, and insist they are seperate peoples.
His historical understanding is not actually shared by today's contemporary scholar and historian, and was not even shared amongst his own Greco allies, that thought there was an extremely small difference between Gauls, and Germanics, and tribes from other gaelic speaking parts of Gaul.
Strabos obviously did not share Caesars political reasoning.
Origins of Belgae
.[8] Ancient sources such as Caesar are not always clear about the things used to define ethnicity today. While Caesar or his sources described the Belgae as distinctly different from the Gauls, Strabo stated that the differences between the Celts (Gauls) and Belgae, in countenance, language, politics, and way of life was a small one, unlike the difference between the Aquitanians and Celts.[9] The fact that the Belgae were living in Gaul means that in one sense they were Gauls. This may be Caesar's meaning when he says "The Belgae have the same method of attacking a fortress as the rest of the Gauls".[10]
Belgae in Britain:
Now, most of the most southern regions of Albion/Briton, were inhabited by Belgae.
The Belgae are even said to be the same peoples as the Irish Fir-Bolg.
Which is hardly surprising, as they spoke the same language as Irish people.
The name belgium, comes from the Belgae.
Belgae
Some peoples in Britain were also called Belgae and O'Rahilly equated them with the Fir Bolg in Ireland. The Belgae gave their name to the Roman province of Gallia Belgica and, much later, to the modern country of Belgium; today "Belgae" is also Latin for "Belgians".
Link for photo
British Belgae
The birth of the Antiochus:
Now, Ptolomy was doing very well in Egypt, until the rise of Antiochus III's selecud empire invaded and conquered Alexander the greats old lands, including macedonia, and re-established the Iranian/Aryan persian titles.
It is likely that the attacks from Belinus & the Belgae had a "huge" role to play in this success.
Antiochus III
Antiochus III the Great /ænˈtaɪəkəs/ (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241 – 3 July 187 BC, ruled April/June 222 – 3 July 187 BC)[1] was a Macedonian Hellenistic king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.[2][3][4] He ruled over the region of Syria and large parts of the rest of western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC. Rising to the throne at the age of eighteen in 222 BC, his early campaigns against the Ptolemaic Kingdom were unsuccessful, but in the following years Antiochus gained several military victories and substantially expanded the empire's territory. His traditional designation, the Great, reflects an epithet he assumed. He also assumed the title Basileus Megas (Greek for "Great King"), the traditional title of the Persian kings. A militarily active ruler, Antiochus restored much of the territory of the Seleucid Empire,
Link for photo,late_1st_century_BC%E2%80%93early_1st_century_AD,_Louvre_Museum(7462828632).jpg)
Antiochus III
Anti-Roman freedom fighter:
Now, Antichus III "is not" Greek in the slightest.
He is a blond haired blue eyed boy.
He has conquered Greece from the Greco-Romans.
So, in that sense, yes, he is Greek.
But he announces himself to the world as a freedom fighter fighting against the growing Roman empire.
His invasion of Greece is of course, a huge blow to the Greco-Roman Hellenstic world.
Antiochus III
Declaring himself the "champion of Greek freedom against Roman domination", Antiochus III waged a four-year war against the Roman Republic beginning in mainland Greece in the autumn of 192 BC[5][6]
Link for photo
Seleucid expansion
Roman alliance:
Now, just as Antiochus was about to walk in to Egypt and hand Ptolomy his p45, the Romans decided to ally themselves with Ptolomy after-all, and they came to the rescue.
War against Rome and death
In 192 BC Antiochus invaded Greece with a 10,000-man army, and was elected the commander in chief of the Aetolian League.[19] In 191 BC, however, the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio) routed him at Thermopylae), forcing him to withdraw to Asia Minor. The Romans followed up their success by invading Anatolia, and the decisive victory of Scipio Asiaticus at Magnesia ad Sipylum (190 BC), following the defeat of Hannibal at sea off Side, delivered Asia Minor into their hands.[13]
Link for photo
Alban hills
Alban hills:
Now, the early Octavians, from house of Octavius, which was the house Julius Caesar was from, sided with Ptolomy, despite the fact that they themselves are partially descended from Gauls from the Alban hills dating back to Alba longa.
Instead of admit this, they choose to insist that Alba longa is a myth and legend, and instead their real ancestors are the Gods.
Octavia Gens origin
The Octavii originally came from the Volscian town of Velitrae, in the Alban Hills. The historian Suetonius writes,
Towards the end of the Republic, it became fashionable for noble families to trace their origin to the gods and heroes of olden time,
Link for photo#/media/File:Gaius_Octavius,_father_of_Augustus.jpg)
Gaius Octavius
Antiochus:
Now, Ptolomy V is actually related to Antiochus III, through Antiochuses patriarch grandfather, Antiochus, who was the brother of the Ptolomy patriarch, ptolomy.
Antiochus)
Antiochus (Greek: Ἀντίοχος; fl. 4th century BC) was a Macedonian) man who lived during the time of Philip II of Macedon (ruled 359-336 BC). He originally came from Orestis), Macedonia.
Antiochus served as an officer under Philip II, and gained distinction as a military general. Antiochus was from an upper noble family. His father was probably called Seleucus, his brother was called Ptolemy)
Link for photo_(cropped).jpg)
Julius Caesar
Beli mawr:
Therefore, when Beli mawr claims to be related to the mother of Jesus, it is actually not impossible that a person with an Anti-Roman agenda, could in fact be a Belgian.
As the Antiochuses are a North western branch of a family which inter-bred with Messenaeans and fathered some of the most well known emperors of our time, including Egyptian emperors, and Roman emperors, who they later grew to despise.
Beli mawr
Beli Mawr ("Beli the Great") was an ancestor figure in Middle Welsh literature and genealogies. He is the father of Cassivellaunus, Arianrhod, Lludd Llaw Eraint, Llefelys, and Afallach. In certain medieval genealogies he is listed as the son or husband of Anna, cousin of Mary, mother of Jesus.
Cleopatra 1:
And Cleopatra I was likely a Belgae also.
And she was the daughter of Antiochus III that married Ptolomy V after her fathers death.
Cleopatra I
Cleopatra I Syra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Σύρα; c. 204 – 176 BC) was a princess of the Seleucid Empire, Queen of Ptolemaic Egypt by marriage to Ptolemy V of Egypt, and regent of Egypt during the minority of their son, Ptolemy VI, from her husband’s death in 180 BC until her own death in 176 BC.
And she was the daughter of Antiochus III that married Ptolomy V after her fathers death.
Life
Cleopatra I was the daughter of Antiochus III the Great, King of the Seleucid Empire, and Queen Laodice III.

submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 20:25 throwawayRAhhq I [35m] spoiled my girlfriend [24f] too much in the beginning and now I don’t know how to fix it

We’ve been together for almost 2 years now. She can be very difficult. She’s not mean, she doesn’t treat me bad, she just always expects to get her way. It’s not her fault, because I set the precedent that way when we first got together. She has always always gotten what she wanted.
She’s 12 years younger than me. She’s incredibly hot. She’s modeled, and been featured in several men’s magazines. Not only that, but she’s funny, smart, educated, successful for her age.
I’m just like a normal looking dude, my advantage is that I have a really good job. I’m probably the most attractive right now than I have been ever in my life, because I grew a beard and work out a ton now. But growing up I was a huge dork, girls didn’t like me, I was really nerdy. That lasted through college, it wasn’t until medical school and residency that I sort of came into myself. Even then, I never in my wildest fantasy thought I would be seriously dating a girl who is so far out of my league. I hear “jokes” about it all the time from friends, coworkers, siblings.
When we first got together, I literally worshipped the ground she walked on. I still do. I don’t think it’s fair to say she “took advantage” of it, because I always offered it. But I am realizing now I was so in awe of her that made her into a spoiled brat.
She’s not a bad girlfriend, she is incredibly loving and sweet to me. She takes really good care of me. She will wait up for me on nights that I am at work late and have dinner ready hot for me when I walk through the door, sometimes 10 or 11 pm. Even though I make a lot more money than her and have always offered to pay all or majority of the bills, she insists on splitting bills with me.
But, if she wakes up and decides she wants a grill, instead of saying, okay we’ll do that this weekend maybe, I’ll be going out and buying a grill and putting it together regardless of having worked a 10 hour day. If she wants to get her hair and nails done, I’ll be chauffeuring her and sitting there waiting for her to get that done. If we go out for Italian, we are seated and order and she gets her food and decides she doesn’t like it and wants sushi instead, we‘ll be getting the check and going to a Japanese restaurant to eat. If she decides on a Friday morning she wants to go to Las Vegas, instead of planning to go sometime soon, we’re flying out straight after work for Vegas for the weekend.
She’s spoiled. She’s not so spoiled that my friends and family think she’s a brat. She’s very charming and polite and hilarious, everyone loves her. No one sees this really difficult side of her except for me.
I want to start changing things, but I don’t want to hurt her feelings or proverbially “pull the rug out from underneath her.” I made things this way, they weren’t always like this. I feel it’s hypocritical of me to present this to her in a way that she needs to change or fix this, because I know for a fact that me and my actions are the direct cause of this. I told her “no, I’m not doing that today, we can do that this weekend or next weekend” the other day and she was completely shocked, and she ended up refusing to do it with me at all because she felt like I rejected her idea (since I’ve never done that before). She can be very sensitive so I am trying to be cognizant.
I’m in the really deep at this point. I want to handle this gently. Some advice would be appreciated.
submitted by throwawayRAhhq to relationship_advice [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 20:07 Rumored17 Refutations for Every Main Pro-Pit Argument

1."It's all how you raise them."

And more:
• ⁠Lockwood, R. A. N. D. A. L. L. (2016). Ethology, ecology and epidemiology of canine aggression. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour & Interactions with People,, 160-181.
• ⁠Abrantes, R., Site, A., Camp, S., Diving, F. A. Q., Camp, G. P., Pages, M., ... & User, C. C. (2016). Aggressive Behavior—Inheritance and Environment.
• ⁠van den Berg, L. I. N. D. A. (2016). Genetics of dog behavior. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions with People, 5, 69.
• ⁠O'Neill, D. G., & Packer, R. M. (2016). The First Canine Behavior and Genetics Conference: Summary and recommendations for future directions in canine behavioral science. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 16, 6-12.
• ⁠Sørensen, M. (2016). Breeding aggression: Review of recent literature concerning the influence of genes on aggressive behaviour (Doctoral dissertation).
• ⁠Schilder, M. B., van der Borg, J. A., & Vinke, C. M. (2019). Intraspecific killing in dogs: predation behavior or aggression? A study of aggressors, victims, possible causes and motivations. Journal of Veterinary Behavior.
These studies all show that genetics play a large role in dog behavior. Most are related to Pit Bulls or aggression, but some just show that there are noticeable differences between dog breeds based on their breed. Here are some anecdotal sources to support the claims that Pit Bulls are born with a tendency to be aggressive:
In addition, "it's all how you raise them" goes against the very existence of dog breeds. If someone is arguing this, they are saying a Labrador Retriever will have the same instincts as a Border Collie, which will have the same instincts as a Doberman, which will have the same instincts as a Great Pyrenees, which will have the same instincts as a Dachshund, etc. This is observably and demonstrably false. Humans created different dog breeds with different temperaments and physical and behavioral traits through selective breeding. This is why dog breeds exist, this is why breed standards exist, this is why people can reasonably and accurately predict how a dog will act based on breed. Are there exceptions? Of course. However, that is just what they are- exceptions. Different dog breeds have different traits and tendencies dependent on what they were selectively bred for.

2. "Chihuahuas are more aggressive."

This is just a disingenuous attempt to derail the conversation. Even if Chihuahuas are more aggressive, they don't/can't kill people. If Chihuahuas were as large as Pit Bulls, perhaps this would be a conversation worth having- seeing as this is not the case, there is no argument to be had here.
I try to emphasize that the issue with Pits is how many people and pets they kill. Pit Bulls are not just biting people- they are killing, severely maiming, and mauling people. There is a huge difference, and it is important to recognize many Pit fanatics will try to lump in all dog bites with the maulings Pit Bulls are responsible for. They are not the same. This is similar to the "Labs bite more" argument- again, we are not just talking about bites. Keep the discussion focused on severe maulings, maimings, and deaths, because that is what BSL targets.
From 1982-2020 no Chihuahua has ever killed anyone. This source breaks down attacks by breed, child or adult victim, and death or maiming.

3. "There's no such thing as a Pit Bull." and "Pit Bulls can't be identified."

A good way to avoid even getting to this apologist bingo point is by using the phrasing "Pit Bull type dogs" as opposed to Pit Bulls. However, you can also just explain that "Pit Bull" is an umbrella term for four closely related dog breeds- the American Pit Bull Terrier, the American Staffordshire Terrier, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and the American Bully. The American Pit Bull Terrier and the American Staffordshire Terrier are actually so similar they can be dual registered as an AmStaff with the AKC and a APBT with the UKC. Until recently, most dog DNA tests would not even separate AmStaff from APBT due to the extreme similarities. This is also just another deflection technique- everyone knows what someone means by "Pit Bull" just as everyone knows what someone means by "Golden Retriever." This is what "pit bull" means legally.
Now, because "Pit Bull" does refer to 4 dog breeds rather than one, Pit apologists will often cry "well of course 4 dog breeds will kill more people!" but keep in mind that these 4 dog breeds have killed more people than 300+ other dog breeds combined. The Pit Bull umbrella kills more people than every other group or type of dogs and more than every other dog breed combined.
Regarding Pit Bulls being unidentifiable:
Pit Bulls have just as many obvious identifying characteristics as other dog breeds. There is no reason to believe Pit Bulls suffer from misidentification more than other dog breeds. There is reason to believe Pit Bulls are intentionally mislabeled as other breeds when in shelters, however. In addition, when discussing fatal Pit Bull attacks specifically, more often than not there are photos of the Pit Bulls involved so anyone can verify for themselves if they were Pit Bull type dogs. Genetic testing is not required for breed identification- anyone who argues this is being disingenuous. Another point is that we are constantly inundated with Pro-Pit propaganda; there is simply no way we can have Pixar shorts such as Kitbull and a new Dodo video every week about Pit Bulls and still be expected to believe the average person cannot visually identify a Pit Bull.

4. "Pits are no more dangerous than other dogs."

The statistics also support our side here- Pit Bulls have killed more people than all other dog breeds combined. Pit Bulls are not the largest, nor the strongest dogs out there. They do not have the strongest bite force. They are more deadly than other dog breeds because humans selectively bred them to be as deadly as possible. They are deadly due to the nature of their attacks and the behavioral traits they display when attacking such as gameness and a bite style mentioned in some of these studies, along with their physical traits.

5. "It used to be Dobermans, Rottweilers, and German Shepherds that people wanted to ban!"

Pit Bulls have killed more people than those three breeds ever did, even at the height of their popularity, even combined. There is also no evidence supporting this claim, and in fact, quite a lot of evidence showing it's completely false.
It is important to note as well that none of these breeds have an entire lobby supporting them. They do not have communities dedicated to attack victim harassment, misinformation, and lies, unlike the Pit Bull has. Something interesting to consider is the bias online when looking at these breeds and other restricted breeds vs pages about Pit Bulls. Wikipedia in particular is very obviously being manipulated by Pit Bull fanatics.
None of this manipulation is occurring on the pages for Dobermans, Rottweilers, or German Shepherds. These three breeds never reached anywhere close to the level of suffering and carnage Pit Bulls are responsible for. There has never been a concerted effort to ban these breeds, although some are targeted by apartment restrictions due to insurance issues. There is also no lobby supporting the misinformation and misrepresentation of these breeds.

6. "Dogsbite.org is biased and unreliable."

Dogsbite is completely open and transparent about their data collection strategies. They provide identification photographs and have all of their citations publicly listed. Citations and Photographs
Here is a challenge I like to give to people who claim Dogsbite is unreliable, although I have yet to receive a legitimate response:
Have you actually looked into dogsbite.org yourself? You do know that dogsbite tracks every fatal dog attack, regardless if it's a Pit or not? It appears anti-Pit because most fatal dog attacks are done by Pits. They're not only posting Pit attacks- there are just so many more fatal Pit attacks than other breeds it appears they are. Here's a proposal for you: Go to 2020 and late 2019, a time frame for which news reports are still abundantly available all over the internet, and fact-check ANY FOUR DOG-BITE FATALITIES OF YOUR CHOOSING, two where the killer dogs are said to be pit/mixes, and two cases where the killer dogs are not said to be pit/mixes:
  1. Did DogsBite accurately name the person killed?
  2. Did DogsBite accurately summarize the circumstances in which the person was killed?
  3. Did DogsBite accurately identify the breed(s) of the killer dog(s)?
  4. Did DogsBite provide a photo or photos of the killer dog(s) so you can judge for yourself what type of dog(s) you think did the killing?
DogsBite and Wikipedia both provide links to news stories about these fatal attacks. If you don't want to use the news links provided by DogsBite, then use the ones on Wikipedia that cover the same stories. DogsBite also provides links to autopsy reports, police reports and 911 calls, so you can compare these primary sources with the summaries on the DogsBite page and assess whether those summaries are accurate.

7. "Human aggressive Pit Bulls were culled!"

This is a myth. While human aggression was not something that was typically selectively bred for it is a myth that most human aggressive Pits were culled. That was not the case, and it still is not the case today. One look at shelter descriptions of Pits with bite histories and severe aggression issues shows these dogs are not being euthanized, and there are several instances of Pit Bulls who have killed people being bred.
There's no evidence whatsoever that dog fighters routinely destroyed human-aggressive dogs and refused to breed them. u/NorthTwoZero wrote at length about why it's a myth here, and this blogger put together a documented list of famously human-aggressive fighting dogs who not only weren't "culled" but were bred so often that they produced over 1,200 known, registered offspring:
"The man-biters were culled and the pit bulls were not bred for human aggression myths were created from thin air, complete fabrications. There is not a sliver of truth in the myth that dogmen culled man-biters. Not only weren't human aggressive pit fighters NOT culled, but a talented man-biter was heavily bred, his stud services were in high demand and the stud fees commanded a premium. The progeny of man-biters are still sought out long after he or she has passed away. This Italian game-dog website lists their choice for the Best Ever fighting dogs, three of the five are known man-biters and the other two trace their origins to the others on their "Best" list. Some famous man-biters have their own facebook fan pages. If you happen to be a 10x winner with 3 kills and scratching on the carcass, people tend to overlook a little thing like the danger she poses to people and she is also likely to be nominated for the cover of this month's International Sporting Dog Journal. Some famous man-biters not only have a facebook fan page, they have their own promotional merchandise too."

8. "Pit Bulls were nanny dogs!" or "Pit Bulls were America's dog!"

First, I usually ask questions that demonstrate out how absurd that claim is. What is a nanny dog? What duties does a nanny dog perform? Why would a dog type be called a "Pit Bull" if it nannied? Where does the name "Pit Bull" come from? Why is it necessary for Pits to have such large, gaping mouths and extremely muscular bodies if they were nannies? Then here is some actual info:
The first appearance of the term "Nanny Dog" dates from a 1971 NYT interview with the then president of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier Club of America, Lillian Rant, who called Staffordshire Bull Terriers "nursemaid dogs" for no apparent reason (other than to attempt to re-brand fighting dogs as family pets).
BAD RAP shared a link. It's Dog Bite Prevention Week. Did you know that there was never such thing as a 'Nanny's Dog'? This term was a recent invention created to describe the myriad of vintage photos of children enjoying their family pit bulls (see link for details about vintage photos). While the intention behind the term was innocent, using it may mislead parents into being careless with their children around their family dog - A recipe for dog bites!
Regarding Pits being "America's dog": Bronwen Dickey (author of incredibly biased and unscientific book "Pit Bull: The Battle over an American Icon") and other pit bull advocates argue that pit bulls were historically beloved in the U.S. until the dogs became associated with urban people of color in the 1970s, so Pit Bull stigma is really about being racist toward black and brown people.
But pit bulls were not historically beloved in the U.S. nor were they popularly regarded as a positive symbol of plucky can-do spirit. Joseph Colby, in his lifetime one of the world's leading authorities on the Pit Bull Terrier, wrote in 1936 that "The general public is under the impression that this breed is carnivorous, vicious, and, fed on a diet of raw meat, will devour a human being" and "When the pit bull terrier was introduced into America, he was more commonly found to be owned by prize fighters, saloon keepers and habitues, sporting men and the like. From the start the breed earned an unjust reputation due to his fighting ability and the character of the owner. To this day he is still trying to live down an unjust and undeserved reputation."
Sometimes Pit people will randomly mention how Sergeant Stubby, a decorated war hero dog, was a Pit Bull. He was not. Primary (contemporary) sources most often describe Stubby as a Boston Terrier or Boston Terrier mix (this breed was sometimes called the Boston Bulldog). He is sometimes said to be a Bull Terrier (the egghead dogs) mix but he obviously resembles a Boston Terrier significantly more than a Bull Terrier. Stubby is never said to be a Pit Bull in primary sources.

9. "Pit Bulls scored 2nd highest on temperament tests and better than most family dog breeds!"

This is always referring to the ATTS, or the American Temperament Testing Society. It is refuted thoroughly in the BanPitBulls FAQ, but this is what I usually say as well:
The test was developed to test working dogs, specifically dogs meant for schutzhund work. It has never been, nor ever purported to be about testing companion animals or a breed's suitability as family pets. Scoring actually favors dogs that bite, in some cases. Breed specific temperament, aggression, and each dog's training is taken into account when scoring. This means that if a relatively untrained Lab bites a "threatening stranger" it will score far lower than a German Shepherd that bites a "threatening stranger." According to the ATTS itself, "95% of dogs who fail do so because they lack confidence" NOT because they bite. Dogs that exhibit avoidance behaviors will fail. Dogs that bite do not automatically fail. The ATTS also states that comparing scores with other dogs means nothing- the pass/fail rates cannot be compared. Different dog breeds that behave the same exact way on the test will get hugely different scores due to the fact they take inherent breed tendencies into consideration. The test is not designed to test for breed aggression, according to the ATTS website. It is more of a test of bravery for individual dogs. Timid dogs will always fail. Dogs that bite will not always fail. If anything, you could argue that the reason Pits have a high passing rate is because they bite or show aggression, although that is speculation and not proven. Either way though- the test does not test breed aggression, passing rates cannot be compared, and the test absolutely does not test for suitability as a family pet. More info here: What the ATTS is really showing.
It is also worth mentioning that the only dogs that participate in the ATTS testing are dogs brought in by their owners- it is not a random sample or scientific study of any kind. Considering the evidence showing the existence of an actual Pit Bull lobby, it would not be a reach to say these results have been intentionally manipulated (if they did even matter, which they don't).
Also, a controlled temperament test found that 13 percent, or one out of seven, pit bulls tried to bite or attack during a one hour test simulating a neighborhood walk. One out of seven pit bulls tried to bite in the span of just one hour compared to only one out of 70 golden retrievers. Note that this study was funded and authored by anti-breed ban activists: They found "no significant difference" between breeds when the definition of aggression was watered down to include even whining or crying. But pay close attention to Table 5 on page 138: out of all the breeds tested, pit bulls were markedly the worst when it came to the percentage of dogs that reached a more serious level of aggression.

10. "It's racism for dogs!"

Humans are not dogs, and dog breeds are not analogous to human races.
In addition, one cannot compare a race of people to a breed of dogs for a multitude of reasons. Dog breeds were selectively, intentionally bred for specific characteristics and traits by human beings. Humans created dog breeds based on what physical and behavioral traits we wanted them to have. (Spaniels for flushing, retrievers for fetching prey/birds without damage, livestock guardian dogs such as Great Pyrenees for protecting livestock, Huskies for endurance and energy, Pointers for pointing, etc. Different dog breeds have different behavioral tendencies because humans selectively bred them to have those tendencies). Dogs also do not suffer from cultural differences, institutionalized racism, or socioeconomic disparities. Humans are also not as heavily influenced by our instincts as dogs are. Dogs behave based on their instincts and training. Humans behave mainly on their "training." Humans also have far more complex thought processes and the ability to make complex decisions. Dogs do not. You could go on and on but that is the basic overview there- dogs were selectively bred and rely mainly on their instincts. Humans were not selectively bred and are capable of making complex and rational decisions.
Post continued in the comments due to the character limit.
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2020.09.17 15:43 FaithInStrangers94 When it rains its a monsoon... and when it doesn’t it’s a goddamn drought

I’m not a superstitious man but theres something almost otherworldly going on here.
One week I’ll be getting 5 matches per day across dating apps, ill get girls I used to know messaging me to ask how I’m going, I will naturally seem to find myself in situations where I’m chatting to cute girls - in restaurants, at a gas stations, gyms etc but not only that..the streets seem to be full of attractive women and I feel like I have it be discerning with who I spend time chatting to.
The very next week I’ll get literally 0 matches on any dating app, the girls I’m talking to will ghost me, I’ll only seem to bump into women I’m not attracted to, the cute waitress will be replaced by a sweaty bald Italian man and I’ll hardly see any appealing ladies whilst I’m out and about, nor do they seem to notice me.
Some will say it’s because in the first week I’m feeling confident and that momentum builds up so I exude a more approachable energy and I put myself in better situations and take more risks..... that might be the case to some level but oftentimes I’m literally just behaving the same way, being my usual jovial self, not resorting to porn or changing my behaviour on or offline to any serious degree.
Has anyone experienced this strange fucking phenomenon?
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